Cross-lingual semantic role labeling (SRL) aims at leveraging resources in a source language to minimize the effort required to construct annotations or models for a new target language. Recent approaches rely on word alignments, machine translation engines, or preprocessing tools such as parsers or taggers. We propose a cross-lingual SRL model which only requires annotations in a source language and access to raw text in the form of a parallel corpus. The backbone of our model is an LSTM-based semantic role labeler jointly trained with a semantic role compressor and multilingual word embeddings. The compressor collects useful information from the output of the semantic role labeler, filtering noisy and conflicting evidence. It lives in a multilingual embedding space and provides direct supervision for predicting semantic roles in the target language. Results on the Universal Proposition Bank and manually annotated datasets show that our method is highly effective, even against systems utilizing supervised features.
In this paper we focus on learning dependency aware representations for semantic role labeling without recourse to an external parser. The backbone of our model is an LSTM-based semantic role labeler jointly trained with two auxiliary tasks: predicting the dependency label of a word and whether there exists an arc linking it to the predicate. The auxiliary tasks provide syntactic information that is specific to semantic role labeling and are learned from training data (dependency annotations) without relying on existing dependency parsers, which can be noisy (e.g., on out-of-domain data or infrequent constructions). Experimental results on the CoNLL-2009 benchmark dataset show that our model outperforms the state of the art in English, and consistently improves performance in other languages, including Chinese, German, and Spanish.
The successful application of neural networks to a variety of NLP tasks has provided strong impetus to develop end-to-end models for semantic role labeling which forego the need for extensive feature engineering. Recent approaches rely on high-quality annotations which are costly to obtain, and mostly unavailable in low resource scenarios (e.g., rare languages or domains). Our work aims to reduce the annotation effort involved via semi-supervised learning. We propose an end-to-end SRL model and demonstrate it can effectively leverage unlabeled data under the cross-view training modeling paradigm. Our LSTM-based semantic role labeler is jointly trained with a sentence learner, which performs POS tagging, dependency parsing, and predicate identification which we argue are critical to learning directly from unlabeled data without recourse to external pre-processing tools. Experimental results on the CoNLL-2009 benchmark dataset show that our model outperforms the state of the art in English, and consistently improves performance in other languages, including Chinese, German, and Spanish.