Rui Liu


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Target Really Matters: Target-aware Contrastive Learning and Consistency Regularization for Few-shot Stance Detection
Rui Liu | Zheng Lin | Huishan Ji | Jiangnan Li | Peng Fu | Weiping Wang
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Stance detection aims to identify the attitude from an opinion towards a certain target. Despite the significant progress on this task, it is extremely time-consuming and budget-unfriendly to collect sufficient high-quality labeled data for every new target under fully-supervised learning, whereas unlabeled data can be collected easier. Therefore, this paper is devoted to few-shot stance detection and investigating how to achieve satisfactory results in semi-supervised settings. As a target-oriented task, the core idea of semi-supervised few-shot stance detection is to make better use of target-relevant information from labeled and unlabeled data. Therefore, we develop a novel target-aware semi-supervised framework. Specifically, we propose a target-aware contrastive learning objective to learn more distinguishable representations for different targets. Such an objective can be easily applied with or without unlabeled data. Furthermore, to thoroughly exploit the unlabeled data and facilitate the model to learn target-relevant stance features in the opinion content, we explore a simple but effective target-aware consistency regularization combined with a self-training strategy. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can achieve state-of-the-art performance on multiple benchmark datasets in the few-shot setting.

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Aspect Is Not You Need: No-aspect Differential Sentiment Framework for Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis
Jiahao Cao | Rui Liu | Huailiang Peng | Lei Jiang | Xu Bai
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) is a fine-grained sentiment classification task. Most recent efforts adopt pre-trained model to classify the sentences with aspects. However, the aspect sentiment bias from pre-trained model brings some noise to the ABSA task. Besides, traditional methods using cross-entropy loss are hard to find the potential associations between sentiment polarities. In this work, we analyze the ABSA task from a novel cognition perspective: humans can often judge the sentiment of an aspect even if they do not know what the aspect is. Moreover, it is easier to distinguish positive and negative sentiments than others for human beings because positive and negative are two opposite sentiments. To this end, we propose a no-aspect differential sentiment (NADS) framework for the ABSA task. We first design a no-aspect template by replacing the aspect with a special unbiased character to eliminate the sentiment bias and obtain a stronger representation. To better get the benefits from the template, we adopt contrastive learning between the no-aspect template and the original sentence. Then we propose a differential sentiment loss instead of the cross-entropy loss to better classify the sentiments by distinguishing the different distances between sentiments. Our proposed model is a general framework and can be combined with almost all traditional ABSA methods. Experiments on SemEval 2014 show that our framework is still able to predict the sentiment of the aspect even we don’t konw what the aspect is. Moreover, our NADS framework boosts three typical ABSA methods and achieves state-of-the-art performance.


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Enhancing Zero-shot and Few-shot Stance Detection with Commonsense Knowledge Graph
Rui Liu | Zheng Lin | Yutong Tan | Weiping Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021


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Ranking and Sampling in Open-Domain Question Answering
Yanfu Xu | Zheng Lin | Yuanxin Liu | Rui Liu | Weiping Wang | Dan Meng
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Open-domain question answering (OpenQA) aims to answer questions based on a number of unlabeled paragraphs. Existing approaches always follow the distantly supervised setup where some of the paragraphs are wrong-labeled (noisy), and mainly utilize the paragraph-question relevance to denoise. However, the paragraph-paragraph relevance, which may aggregate the evidence among relevant paragraphs, can also be utilized to discover more useful paragraphs. Moreover, current approaches mainly focus on the positive paragraphs which are known to contain the answer during training. This will affect the generalization ability of the model and make it be disturbed by the similar but irrelevant (distracting) paragraphs during testing. In this paper, we first introduce a ranking model leveraging the paragraph-question and the paragraph-paragraph relevance to compute a confidence score for each paragraph. Furthermore, based on the scores, we design a modified weighted sampling strategy for training to mitigate the influence of the noisy and distracting paragraphs. Experiments on three public datasets (Quasar-T, SearchQA and TriviaQA) show that our model advances the state of the art.


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A LSTM Approach with Sub-Word Embeddings for Mongolian Phrase Break Prediction
Rui Liu | Feilong Bao | Guanglai Gao | Hui Zhang | Yonghe Wang
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

In this paper, we first utilize the word embedding that focuses on sub-word units to the Mongolian Phrase Break (PB) prediction task by using Long-Short-Term-Memory (LSTM) model. Mongolian is an agglutinative language. Each root can be followed by several suffixes to form probably millions of words, but the existing Mongolian corpus is not enough to build a robust entire word embedding, thus it suffers a serious data sparse problem and brings a great difficulty for Mongolian PB prediction. To solve this problem, we look at sub-word units in Mongolian word, and encode their information to a meaningful representation, then fed it to LSTM to decode the best corresponding PB label. Experimental results show that the proposed model significantly outperforms traditional CRF model using manually features and obtains 7.49% F-Measure gain.


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Structural Embedding of Syntactic Trees for Machine Comprehension
Rui Liu | Junjie Hu | Wei Wei | Zi Yang | Eric Nyberg
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Deep neural networks for machine comprehension typically utilizes only word or character embeddings without explicitly taking advantage of structured linguistic information such as constituency trees and dependency trees. In this paper, we propose structural embedding of syntactic trees (SEST), an algorithm framework to utilize structured information and encode them into vector representations that can boost the performance of algorithms for the machine comprehension. We evaluate our approach using a state-of-the-art neural attention model on the SQuAD dataset. Experimental results demonstrate that our model can accurately identify the syntactic boundaries of the sentences and extract answers that are syntactically coherent over the baseline methods.