Rui Meng


2023

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General-to-Specific Transfer Labeling for Domain Adaptable Keyphrase Generation
Rui Meng | Tong Wang | Xingdi Yuan | Yingbo Zhou | Daqing He
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Training keyphrase generation (KPG) models require a large amount of annotated data, which can be prohibitively expensive and often limited to specific domains. In this study, we first demonstrate that large distribution shifts among different domains severely hinder the transferability of KPG models. We then propose a three-stage pipeline, which gradually guides KPG models’ learning focus from general syntactical features to domain-related semantics, in a data-efficient manner. With domain-general phrase pre-training, we pre-train Sequence-to-Sequence models with generic phrase annotations that are widely available on the web, which enables the models to generate phrases in a wide range of domains. The resulting model is then applied in the Transfer Labeling stage to produce domain-specific pseudo keyphrases, which help adapt models to a new domain. Finally, we fine-tune the model with limited data with true labels to fully adapt it to the target domain. Our experiment results show that the proposed process can produce good quality keyphrases in new domains and achieve consistent improvements after adaptation with limited in-domain annotated data. All code and datasets are available at https://github.com/memray/OpenNMT-kpg-release.

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HPE: Answering Complex Questions over Text by Hybrid Question Parsing and Execution
Ye Liu | Semih Yavuz | Rui Meng | Dragomir Radev | Caiming Xiong | Shafiq Joty | Yingbo Zhou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

The dominant paradigm of textual question answering systems is based on end-to-end neural networks, which excels at answering natural language questions but falls short on complex ones. This stands in contrast to the broad adaptation of semantic parsing approaches over structured data sources (e.g., relational database, knowledge graphs), that convert natural language questions to logical forms and execute them with query engines. Towards combining the strengths of neural and symbolic methods, we propose a framework of question parsing and execution on textual QA. It comprises two central pillars: (1) We parse the question of varying complexity into an intermediate representation, named H-expression, which is composed of simple questions as the primitives and symbolic operations representing the relationships among them; (2) To execute the resulting H-expressions, we design a hybrid executor, which integrates the deterministic rules to translate the symbolic operations with a drop-in neural reader network to answer each decomposed simple question. Hence, the proposed framework can be viewed as a top-down question parsing followed by a bottom-up answer backtracking. The resulting H-expressions closely guide the execution process, offering higher precision besides better interpretability while still preserving the advantages of the neural readers for resolving its primitive elements. Our extensive experiments on MuSiQue, 2WikiQA, HotpotQA, and NQ show that the proposed parsing and hybrid execution framework outperforms existing approaches in supervised, few-shot, and zero-shot settings, while also effectively exposing its underlying reasoning process.

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Enhancing Performance on Seen and Unseen Dialogue Scenarios using Retrieval-Augmented End-to-End Task-Oriented System
Jianguo Zhang | Stephen Roller | Kun Qian | Zhiwei Liu | Rui Meng | Shelby Heinecke | Huan Wang | Silvio Savarese | Caiming Xiong
Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue

End-to-end task-oriented dialogue (TOD) systems have achieved promising performance by leveraging sophisticated natural language understanding and natural language generation capabilities of pre-trained models. This work enables the TOD systems with more flexibility through a simple cache. The cache provides the flexibility to dynamically update the TOD systems and handle both existing and unseen dialogue scenarios. Towards this end, we first fine-tune a retrieval module to effectively retrieve the most relevant information entries from the cache. We then train end-to-end TOD models that can refer to and ground on both dialogue history and retrieved information during TOD generation. The introduced cache is straightforward to construct, and the backbone models of TOD systems are compatible with existing pre-trained generative models. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superior performance of our framework, with a notable improvement in non-empty joint goal accuracy by 6.7% compared to strong baselines.

2022

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Divide-and-Conquer Text Simplification by Scalable Data Enhancement
Sanqiang Zhao | Rui Meng | Hui Su | Daqing He
Proceedings of the Workshop on Text Simplification, Accessibility, and Readability (TSAR-2022)

Text simplification is a task to reduce the complexity of a text while retain its original meaning. It can facilitate people with low-literacy skills or language impairments, such as children and individuals with dyslexia and aphasia, to read and understand complicated materials. Normally, substitution, deletion, reordering, and splitting are considered as four core operations for performing text simplification. Thus an ideal model should be capable of executing these operations appropriately to simplify a text. However, by examining the degree that each operation is exerted in different datasets, we observe that there is a salient discrepancy between the human annotation and existing training data that is widely used for training simplification models. To alleviate this discrepancy, we propose an unsupervised data construction method that distills each simplifying operation into data via different automatic data enhancement measures. The empirical results demonstrate that the resulting dataset SimSim can support models to achieve better performance by performing all operations properly.

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Uni-Parser: Unified Semantic Parser for Question Answering on Knowledge Base and Database
Ye Liu | Semih Yavuz | Rui Meng | Dragomir Radev | Caiming Xiong | Yingbo Zhou
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Parsing natural language questions into executable logical forms is a useful and interpretable way to perform question answering on structured data such as knowledge bases (KB) or databases (DB). However, existing approaches on semantic parsing cannot adapt to both modalities, as they suffer from the exponential growth of the logical form candidates and can hardly generalize to unseen data. In this work, we propose Uni-Parser, a unified semantic parser for question answering (QA) on both KB and DB. We define the primitive (relation and entity in KB, and table name, column name and cell value in DB) as the essential element in our framework. The number of primitives grows only at a linear rate to the number of retrieved relations in KB and DB, preventing us from exponential logic form candidates. We leverage the generator to predict final logical forms by altering and composing top-ranked primitives with different operations (e.g. select, where, count). With sufficiently pruned search space by a contrastive primitive ranker, the generator is empowered to capture the composition of primitives enhancing its generalization ability. We achieve competitive results on multiple KB and DB QA benchmarks with more efficiency, especially in the compositional and zero-shot settings.

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Interpretable Research Replication Prediction via Variational Contextual Consistency Sentence Masking
Tianyi Luo | Rui Meng | Xin Wang | Yang Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Research Replication Prediction (RRP) is the task of predicting whether a published research result can be replicated or not. Building an interpretable neural text classifier for RRP promotes the understanding of why a research paper is predicted as replicable or non-replicable and therefore makes its real-world application more reliable and trustworthy. However, the prior works on model interpretation mainly focused on improving the model interpretability at the word/phrase level, which are insufficient especially for long research papers in RRP. Furthermore, the existing methods cannot utilize a large size of unlabeled dataset to further improve the model interpretability. To address these limitations, we aim to build an interpretable neural model which can provide sentence-level explanations and apply weakly supervised approach to further leverage the large corpus of unlabeled datasets to boost the interpretability in addition to improving prediction performance as existing works have done. In this work, we propose the Variational Contextual Consistency Sentence Masking (VCCSM) method to automatically extract key sentences based on the context in the classifier, using both labeled and unlabeled datasets. Results of our experiments on RRP along with European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) datasets demonstrate that VCCSM is able to improve the model interpretability for the long document classification tasks using the area over the perturbation curve and post-hoc accuracy as evaluation metrics.

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Retrieval-Augmented Multilingual Keyphrase Generation with Retriever-Generator Iterative Training
Yifan Gao | Qingyu Yin | Zheng Li | Rui Meng | Tong Zhao | Bing Yin | Irwin King | Michael Lyu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Keyphrase generation is the task of automatically predicting keyphrases given a piece of long text. Despite its recent flourishing, keyphrase generation on non-English languages haven’t been vastly investigated. In this paper, we call attention to a new setting named multilingual keyphrase generation and we contribute two new datasets, EcommerceMKP and AcademicMKP, covering six languages. Technically, we propose a retrieval-augmented method for multilingual keyphrase generation to mitigate the data shortage problem in non-English languages. The retrieval-augmented model leverages keyphrase annotations in English datasets to facilitate generating keyphrases in low-resource languages. Given a non-English passage, a cross-lingual dense passage retrieval module finds relevant English passages. Then the associated English keyphrases serve as external knowledge for keyphrase generation in the current language. Moreover, we develop a retriever-generator iterative training algorithm to mine pseudo parallel passage pairs to strengthen the cross-lingual passage retriever. Comprehensive experiments and ablations show that the proposed approach outperforms all baselines.

2021

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Bringing Structure into Summaries: a Faceted Summarization Dataset for Long Scientific Documents
Rui Meng | Khushboo Thaker | Lei Zhang | Yue Dong | Xingdi Yuan | Tong Wang | Daqing He
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Faceted summarization provides briefings of a document from different perspectives. Readers can quickly comprehend the main points of a long document with the help of a structured outline. However, little research has been conducted on this subject, partially due to the lack of large-scale faceted summarization datasets. In this study, we present FacetSum, a faceted summarization benchmark built on Emerald journal articles, covering a diverse range of domains. Different from traditional document-summary pairs, FacetSum provides multiple summaries, each targeted at specific sections of a long document, including the purpose, method, findings, and value. Analyses and empirical results on our dataset reveal the importance of bringing structure into summaries. We believe FacetSum will spur further advances in summarization research and foster the development of NLP systems that can leverage the structured information in both long texts and summaries.

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An Empirical Study on Neural Keyphrase Generation
Rui Meng | Xingdi Yuan | Tong Wang | Sanqiang Zhao | Adam Trischler | Daqing He
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Recent years have seen a flourishing of neural keyphrase generation (KPG) works, including the release of several large-scale datasets and a host of new models to tackle them. Model performance on KPG tasks has increased significantly with evolving deep learning research. However, there lacks a comprehensive comparison among different model designs, and a thorough investigation on related factors that may affect a KPG system’s generalization performance. In this empirical study, we aim to fill this gap by providing extensive experimental results and analyzing the most crucial factors impacting the generalizability of KPG models. We hope this study can help clarify some of the uncertainties surrounding the KPG task and facilitate future research on this topic.

2020

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One Size Does Not Fit All: Generating and Evaluating Variable Number of Keyphrases
Xingdi Yuan | Tong Wang | Rui Meng | Khushboo Thaker | Peter Brusilovsky | Daqing He | Adam Trischler
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Different texts shall by nature correspond to different number of keyphrases. This desideratum is largely missing from existing neural keyphrase generation models. In this study, we address this problem from both modeling and evaluation perspectives. We first propose a recurrent generative model that generates multiple keyphrases as delimiter-separated sequences. Generation diversity is further enhanced with two novel techniques by manipulating decoder hidden states. In contrast to previous approaches, our model is capable of generating diverse keyphrases and controlling number of outputs. We further propose two evaluation metrics tailored towards the variable-number generation. We also introduce a new dataset StackEx that expands beyond the only existing genre (i.e., academic writing) in keyphrase generation tasks. With both previous and new evaluation metrics, our model outperforms strong baselines on all datasets.

2018

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Integrating Transformer and Paraphrase Rules for Sentence Simplification
Sanqiang Zhao | Rui Meng | Daqing He | Andi Saptono | Bambang Parmanto
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Sentence simplification aims to reduce the complexity of a sentence while retaining its original meaning. Current models for sentence simplification adopted ideas from machine translation studies and implicitly learned simplification mapping rules from normal-simple sentence pairs. In this paper, we explore a novel model based on a multi-layer and multi-head attention architecture and we propose two innovative approaches to integrate the Simple PPDB (A Paraphrase Database for Simplification), an external paraphrase knowledge base for simplification that covers a wide range of real-world simplification rules. The experiments show that the integration provides two major benefits: (1) the integrated model outperforms multiple state-of-the-art baseline models for sentence simplification in the literature (2) through analysis of the rule utilization, the model seeks to select more accurate simplification rules. The code and models used in the paper are available at https://github.com/Sanqiang/text_simplification.

2017

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Deep Keyphrase Generation
Rui Meng | Sanqiang Zhao | Shuguang Han | Daqing He | Peter Brusilovsky | Yu Chi
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Keyphrase provides highly-summative information that can be effectively used for understanding, organizing and retrieving text content. Though previous studies have provided many workable solutions for automated keyphrase extraction, they commonly divided the to-be-summarized content into multiple text chunks, then ranked and selected the most meaningful ones. These approaches could neither identify keyphrases that do not appear in the text, nor capture the real semantic meaning behind the text. We propose a generative model for keyphrase prediction with an encoder-decoder framework, which can effectively overcome the above drawbacks. We name it as deep keyphrase generation since it attempts to capture the deep semantic meaning of the content with a deep learning method. Empirical analysis on six datasets demonstrates that our proposed model not only achieves a significant performance boost on extracting keyphrases that appear in the source text, but also can generate absent keyphrases based on the semantic meaning of the text. Code and dataset are available at https://github.com/memray/seq2seq-keyphrase.