Rui Xia


2022

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Generative Cross-Domain Data Augmentation for Aspect and Opinion Co-Extraction
Junjie Li | Jianfei Yu | Rui Xia
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

As a fundamental task in opinion mining, aspect and opinion co-extraction aims to identify the aspect terms and opinion terms in reviews. However, due to the lack of fine-grained annotated resources, it is hard to train a robust model for many domains. To alleviate this issue, unsupervised domain adaptation is proposed to transfer knowledge from a labeled source domain to an unlabeled target domain. In this paper, we propose a new Generative Cross-Domain Data Augmentation framework for unsupervised domain adaptation. The proposed framework is aimed to generate target-domain data with fine-grained annotation by exploiting the labeled data in the source domain. Specifically, we remove the domain-specific segments in a source-domain labeled sentence, and then use this as input to a pre-trained sequence-to-sequence model BART to simultaneously generate a target-domain sentence and predict the corresponding label for each word. Experimental results on three datasets demonstrate that our approach is more effective than previous domain adaptation methods.

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Vision-Language Pre-Training for Multimodal Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis
Yan Ling | Jianfei Yu | Rui Xia
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

As an important task in sentiment analysis, Multimodal Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis (MABSA) has attracted increasing attention inrecent years. However, previous approaches either (i) use separately pre-trained visual and textual models, which ignore the crossmodalalignment or (ii) use vision-language models pre-trained with general pre-training tasks, which are inadequate to identify fine-grainedaspects, opinions, and their alignments across modalities. To tackle these limitations, we propose a task-specific Vision-LanguagePre-training framework for MABSA (VLP-MABSA), which is a unified multimodal encoder-decoder architecture for all the pretrainingand downstream tasks. We further design three types of task-specific pre-training tasks from the language, vision, and multimodalmodalities, respectively. Experimental results show that our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches on three MABSA subtasks. Further analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of each pre-training task. The source code is publicly released at https://github.com/NUSTM/VLP-MABSA.

2021

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Reinforced Counterfactual Data Augmentation for Dual Sentiment Classification
Hao Chen | Rui Xia | Jianfei Yu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Data augmentation and adversarial perturbation approaches have recently achieved promising results in solving the over-fitting problem in many natural language processing (NLP) tasks including sentiment classification. However, existing studies aimed to improve the generalization ability by augmenting the training data with synonymous examples or adding random noises to word embeddings, which cannot address the spurious association problem. In this work, we propose an end-to-end reinforcement learning framework, which jointly performs counterfactual data generation and dual sentiment classification. Our approach has three characteristics:1) the generator automatically generates massive and diverse antonymous sentences; 2) the discriminator contains a original-side sentiment predictor and an antonymous-side sentiment predictor, which jointly evaluate the quality of the generated sample and help the generator iteratively generate higher-quality antonymous samples; 3) the discriminator is directly used as the final sentiment classifier without the need to build an extra one. Extensive experiments show that our approach outperforms strong data augmentation baselines on several benchmark sentiment classification datasets. Further analysis confirms our approach’s advantages in generating more diverse training samples and solving the spurious association problem in sentiment classification.

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Comparative Opinion Quintuple Extraction from Product Reviews
Ziheng Liu | Rui Xia | Jianfei Yu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

As an important task in opinion mining, comparative opinion mining aims to identify comparative sentences from product reviews, extract the comparative elements, and obtain the corresponding comparative opinion tuples. However, most previous studies simply regarded comparative tuple extraction as comparative element extraction, but ignored the fact that many comparative sentences may contain multiple comparisons. The comparative opinion tuples defined in these studies also failed to explicitly provide comparative preferences. To address these limitations, in this work we first introduce a new Comparative Opinion Quintuple Extraction (COQE) task, to identify comparative sentences from product reviews and extract all comparative opinion quintuples (Subject, Object, Comparative Aspect, Comparative Opinion, Comparative Preference). Secondly, based on the existing comparative opinion mining corpora, we make supplementary annotations and construct three datasets for the COQE task. Finally, we benchmark the COQE task by proposing a new BERT-based multi-stage approach as well as three baseline systems extended from previous methods. %The new approach significantly outperforms three baseline systems on three datasets and represents a strong benchmark for COQE. Experimental results show that the new approach significantly outperforms three baseline systems on three datasets for the COQE task.

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Cross-Domain Review Generation for Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis
Jianfei Yu | Chenggong Gong | Rui Xia
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Aspect-Category-Opinion-Sentiment Quadruple Extraction with Implicit Aspects and Opinions
Hongjie Cai | Rui Xia | Jianfei Yu
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Product reviews contain a large number of implicit aspects and implicit opinions. However, most of the existing studies in aspect-based sentiment analysis ignored this problem. In this work, we introduce a new task, named Aspect-Category-Opinion-Sentiment (ACOS) Quadruple Extraction, with the goal to extract all aspect-category-opinion-sentiment quadruples in a review sentence and provide full support for aspect-based sentiment analysis with implicit aspects and opinions. We furthermore construct two new datasets, Restaurant-ACOS and Laptop-ACOS, for this new task, both of which contain the annotations of not only aspect-category-opinion-sentiment quadruples but also implicit aspects and opinions. The former is an extension of the SemEval Restaurant dataset; the latter is a newly collected and annotated Laptop dataset, twice the size of the SemEval Laptop dataset. We finally benchmark the task with four baseline systems. Experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the new task and its effectiveness in extracting and describing implicit aspects and implicit opinions. The two datasets and source code of four systems are publicly released at https://github.com/NUSTM/ACOS.

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Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations
Heng Ji | Jong C. Park | Rui Xia
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

2020

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ECPE-2D: Emotion-Cause Pair Extraction based on Joint Two-Dimensional Representation, Interaction and Prediction
Zixiang Ding | Rui Xia | Jianfei Yu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In recent years, a new interesting task, called emotion-cause pair extraction (ECPE), has emerged in the area of text emotion analysis. It aims at extracting the potential pairs of emotions and their corresponding causes in a document. To solve this task, the existing research employed a two-step framework, which first extracts individual emotion set and cause set, and then pair the corresponding emotions and causes. However, such a pipeline of two steps contains some inherent flaws: 1) the modeling does not aim at extracting the final emotion-cause pair directly; 2) the errors from the first step will affect the performance of the second step. To address these shortcomings, in this paper we propose a new end-to-end approach, called ECPE-Two-Dimensional (ECPE-2D), to represent the emotion-cause pairs by a 2D representation scheme. A 2D transformer module and two variants, window-constrained and cross-road 2D transformers, are further proposed to model the interactions of different emotion-cause pairs. The 2D representation, interaction, and prediction are integrated into a joint framework. In addition to the advantages of joint modeling, the experimental results on the benchmark emotion cause corpus show that our approach improves the F1 score of the state-of-the-art from 61.28% to 68.89%.

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Improving Multimodal Named Entity Recognition via Entity Span Detection with Unified Multimodal Transformer
Jianfei Yu | Jing Jiang | Li Yang | Rui Xia
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In this paper, we study Multimodal Named Entity Recognition (MNER) for social media posts. Existing approaches for MNER mainly suffer from two drawbacks: (1) despite generating word-aware visual representations, their word representations are insensitive to the visual context; (2) most of them ignore the bias brought by the visual context. To tackle the first issue, we propose a multimodal interaction module to obtain both image-aware word representations and word-aware visual representations. To alleviate the visual bias, we further propose to leverage purely text-based entity span detection as an auxiliary module, and design a Unified Multimodal Transformer to guide the final predictions with the entity span predictions. Experiments show that our unified approach achieves the new state-of-the-art performance on two benchmark datasets.

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Aspect-Category based Sentiment Analysis with Hierarchical Graph Convolutional Network
Hongjie Cai | Yaofeng Tu | Xiangsheng Zhou | Jianfei Yu | Rui Xia
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Most of the aspect based sentiment analysis research aims at identifying the sentiment polarities toward some explicit aspect terms while ignores implicit aspects in text. To capture both explicit and implicit aspects, we focus on aspect-category based sentiment analysis, which involves joint aspect category detection and category-oriented sentiment classification. However, currently only a few simple studies have focused on this problem. The shortcomings in the way they defined the task make their approaches difficult to effectively learn the inner-relations between categories and the inter-relations between categories and sentiments. In this work, we re-formalize the task as a category-sentiment hierarchy prediction problem, which contains a hierarchy output structure to first identify multiple aspect categories in a piece of text, and then predict the sentiment for each of the identified categories. Specifically, we propose a Hierarchical Graph Convolutional Network (Hier-GCN), where a lower-level GCN is to model the inner-relations among multiple categories, and the higher-level GCN is to capture the inter-relations between aspect categories and sentiments. Extensive evaluations demonstrate that our hierarchy output structure is superior over existing ones, and the Hier-GCN model can consistently achieve the best results on four benchmarks.

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Grid Tagging Scheme for Aspect-oriented Fine-grained Opinion Extraction
Zhen Wu | Chengcan Ying | Fei Zhao | Zhifang Fan | Xinyu Dai | Rui Xia
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Aspect-oriented Fine-grained Opinion Extraction (AFOE) aims at extracting aspect terms and opinion terms from review in the form of opinion pairs or additionally extracting sentiment polarity of aspect term to form opinion triplet. Because of containing several opinion factors, the complete AFOE task is usually divided into multiple subtasks and achieved in the pipeline. However, pipeline approaches easily suffer from error propagation and inconvenience in real-world scenarios. To this end, we propose a novel tagging scheme, Grid Tagging Scheme (GTS), to address the AFOE task in an end-to-end fashion only with one unified grid tagging task. Additionally, we design an effective inference strategy on GTS to exploit mutual indication between different opinion factors for more accurate extractions. To validate the feasibility and compatibility of GTS, we implement three different GTS models respectively based on CNN, BiLSTM, and BERT, and conduct experiments on the aspect-oriented opinion pair extraction and opinion triplet extraction datasets. Extensive experimental results indicate that GTS models outperform strong baselines significantly and achieve state-of-the-art performance.

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Coupled Hierarchical Transformer for Stance-Aware Rumor Verification in Social Media Conversations
Jianfei Yu | Jing Jiang | Ling Min Serena Khoo | Hai Leong Chieu | Rui Xia
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

The prevalent use of social media enables rapid spread of rumors on a massive scale, which leads to the emerging need of automatic rumor verification (RV). A number of previous studies focus on leveraging stance classification to enhance RV with multi-task learning (MTL) methods. However, most of these methods failed to employ pre-trained contextualized embeddings such as BERT, and did not exploit inter-task dependencies by using predicted stance labels to improve the RV task. Therefore, in this paper, to extend BERT to obtain thread representations, we first propose a Hierarchical Transformer, which divides each long thread into shorter subthreads, and employs BERT to separately represent each subthread, followed by a global Transformer layer to encode all the subthreads. We further propose a Coupled Transformer Module to capture the inter-task interactions and a Post-Level Attention layer to use the predicted stance labels for RV, respectively. Experiments on two benchmark datasets show the superiority of our Coupled Hierarchical Transformer model over existing MTL approaches.

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End-to-End Emotion-Cause Pair Extraction based on Sliding Window Multi-Label Learning
Zixiang Ding | Rui Xia | Jianfei Yu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Emotion-cause pair extraction (ECPE) is a new task that aims to extract the potential pairs of emotions and their corresponding causes in a document. The existing methods first perform emotion extraction and cause extraction independently, and then perform emotion-cause pairing and filtering. However, the above methods ignore the fact that the cause and the emotion it triggers are inseparable, and the extraction of the cause without specifying the emotion is pathological, which greatly limits the performance of the above methods in the first step. To tackle these shortcomings, we propose two joint frameworks for ECPE: 1) multi-label learning for the extraction of the cause clauses corresponding to the specified emotion clause (CMLL) and 2) multi-label learning for the extraction of the emotion clauses corresponding to the specified cause clause (EMLL). The window of multi-label learning is centered on the specified emotion clause or cause clause and slides as their positions move. Finally, CMLL and EMLL are integrated to obtain the final result. We evaluate our model on a benchmark emotion cause corpus, the results show that our approach achieves the best performance among all compared systems on the ECPE task.

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Unified Feature and Instance Based Domain Adaptation for Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis
Chenggong Gong | Jianfei Yu | Rui Xia
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

The supervised models for aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) rely heavily on labeled data. However, fine-grained labeled data are scarce for the ABSA task. To alleviate the dependence on labeled data, prior works mainly focused on feature-based adaptation, which used the domain-shared knowledge to construct auxiliary tasks or domain adversarial learning to bridge the gap between domains, while ignored the attribute of instance-based adaptation. To resolve this limitation, we propose an end-to-end framework to jointly perform feature and instance based adaptation for the ABSA task in this paper. Based on BERT, we learn domain-invariant feature representations by using part-of-speech features and syntactic dependency relations to construct auxiliary tasks, and jointly perform word-level instance weighting in the framework of sequence labeling. Experiment results on four benchmarks show that the proposed method can achieve significant improvements in comparison with the state-of-the-arts in both tasks of cross-domain End2End ABSA and cross-domain aspect extraction.

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A State-independent and Time-evolving Network for Early Rumor Detection in Social Media
Rui Xia | Kaizhou Xuan | Jianfei Yu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

In this paper, we study automatic rumor detection for in social media at the event level where an event consists of a sequence of posts organized according to the posting time. It is common that the state of an event is dynamically evolving. However, most of the existing methods to this task ignored this problem, and established a global representation based on all the posts in the event’s life cycle. Such coarse-grained methods failed to capture the event’s unique features in different states. To address this limitation, we propose a state-independent and time-evolving Network (STN) for rumor detection based on fine-grained event state detection and segmentation. Given an event composed of a sequence of posts, STN first predicts the corresponding sequence of states and segments the event into several state-independent sub-events. For each sub-event, STN independently trains an encoder to learn the feature representation for that sub-event and incrementally fuses the representation of the current sub-event with previous ones for rumor prediction. This framework can more accurately learn the representation of an event in the initial stage and enable early rumor detection. Experiments on two benchmark datasets show that STN can significantly improve the rumor detection accuracy in comparison with some strong baseline systems. We also design a new evaluation metric to measure the performance of early rumor detection, under which STN shows a higher advantage in comparison.

2019

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Emotion-Cause Pair Extraction: A New Task to Emotion Analysis in Texts
Rui Xia | Zixiang Ding
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Emotion cause extraction (ECE), the task aimed at extracting the potential causes behind certain emotions in text, has gained much attention in recent years due to its wide applications. However, it suffers from two shortcomings: 1) the emotion must be annotated before cause extraction in ECE, which greatly limits its applications in real-world scenarios; 2) the way to first annotate emotion and then extract the cause ignores the fact that they are mutually indicative. In this work, we propose a new task: emotion-cause pair extraction (ECPE), which aims to extract the potential pairs of emotions and corresponding causes in a document. We propose a 2-step approach to address this new ECPE task, which first performs individual emotion extraction and cause extraction via multi-task learning, and then conduct emotion-cause pairing and filtering. The experimental results on a benchmark emotion cause corpus prove the feasibility of the ECPE task as well as the effectiveness of our approach.

2018

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Multimodal Relational Tensor Network for Sentiment and Emotion Classification
Saurav Sahay | Shachi H Kumar | Rui Xia | Jonathan Huang | Lama Nachman
Proceedings of Grand Challenge and Workshop on Human Multimodal Language (Challenge-HML)

Understanding Affect from video segments has brought researchers from the language, audio and video domains together. Most of the current multimodal research in this area deals with various techniques to fuse the modalities, and mostly treat the segments of a video independently. Motivated by the work of (Zadeh et al., 2017) and (Poria et al., 2017), we present our architecture, Relational Tensor Network, where we use the inter-modal interactions within a segment (intra-segment) and also consider the sequence of segments in a video to model the inter-segment inter-modal interactions. We also generate rich representations of text and audio modalities by leveraging richer audio and linguistic context alongwith fusing fine-grained knowledge based polarity scores from text. We present the results of our model on CMU-MOSEI dataset and show that our model outperforms many baselines and state of the art methods for sentiment classification and emotion recognition.

2017

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Sentiment Lexicon Construction with Representation Learning Based on Hierarchical Sentiment Supervision
Leyi Wang | Rui Xia
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Sentiment lexicon is an important tool for identifying the sentiment polarity of words and texts. How to automatically construct sentiment lexicons has become a research topic in the field of sentiment analysis and opinion mining. Recently there were some attempts to employ representation learning algorithms to construct a sentiment lexicon with sentiment-aware word embedding. However, these methods were normally trained under document-level sentiment supervision. In this paper, we develop a neural architecture to train a sentiment-aware word embedding by integrating the sentiment supervision at both document and word levels, to enhance the quality of word embedding as well as the sentiment lexicon. Experiments on the SemEval 2013-2016 datasets indicate that the sentiment lexicon generated by our approach achieves the state-of-the-art performance in both supervised and unsupervised sentiment classification, in comparison with several strong sentiment lexicon construction methods.

2015

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Co-training for Semi-supervised Sentiment Classification Based on Dual-view Bags-of-words Representation
Rui Xia | Cheng Wang | Xin-Yu Dai | Tao Li
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2014

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Bilingual Event Extraction: a Case Study on Trigger Type Determination
Zhu Zhu | Shoushan Li | Guodong Zhou | Rui Xia
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

2013

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Dual Training and Dual Prediction for Polarity Classification
Rui Xia | Tao Wang | Xuelei Hu | Shoushan Li | Chengqing Zong
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

2011

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A POS-based Ensemble Model for Cross-domain Sentiment Classification
Rui Xia | Chengqing Zong
Proceedings of 5th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

2010

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Exploring the Use of Word Relation Features for Sentiment Classification
Rui Xia | Chengqing Zong
Coling 2010: Posters

2009

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A Framework of Feature Selection Methods for Text Categorization
Shoushan Li | Rui Xia | Chengqing Zong | Chu-Ren Huang
Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the 47th Annual Meeting of the ACL and the 4th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing of the AFNLP