We present IBR, an Iterative Backward Reasoning model to solve the proof generation tasks on rule-based Question Answering (QA), where models are required to reason over a series of textual rules and facts to find out the related proof path and derive the final answer. We handle the limitations of existed works in two folds: 1) enhance the interpretability of reasoning procedures with detailed tracking, by predicting nodes and edges in the proof path iteratively backward from the question; 2) promote the efficiency and accuracy via reasoning on the elaborate representations of nodes and history paths, without any intermediate texts that may introduce external noise during proof generation. There are three main modules in IBR, QA and proof strategy prediction to obtain the answer and offer guidance for the following procedure; parent node prediction to determine a node in the existing proof that a new child node will link to; child node prediction to find out which new node will be added to the proof. Experiments on both synthetic and paraphrased datasets demonstrate that IBR has better in-domain performance as well as cross-domain transferability than several strong baselines. Our code and models are available at https://github. com/find-knowledge/IBR.
Zero-shot stance detection (ZSSD) aims to detect the stance for an unseen target during the inference stage. In this paper, we propose a joint contrastive learning (JointCL) framework, which consists of stance contrastive learning and target-aware prototypical graph contrastive learning. Specifically, a stance contrastive learning strategy is employed to better generalize stance features for unseen targets. Further, we build a prototypical graph for each instance to learn the target-based representation, in which the prototypes are deployed as a bridge to share the graph structures between the known targets and the unseen ones. Then a novel target-aware prototypical graph contrastive learning strategy is devised to generalize the reasoning ability of target-based stance representations to the unseen targets. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that the proposed approach achieves state-of-the-art performance in the ZSSD task.
With the increasing popularity of posting multimodal messages online, many recent studies have been carried out utilizing both textual and visual information for multi-modal sarcasm detection. In this paper, we investigate multi-modal sarcasm detection from a novel perspective by constructing a cross-modal graph for each instance to explicitly draw the ironic relations between textual and visual modalities. Specifically, we first detect the objects paired with descriptions of the image modality, enabling the learning of important visual information. Then, the descriptions of the objects are served as a bridge to determine the importance of the association between the objects of image modality and the contextual words of text modality, so as to build a cross-modal graph for each multi-modal instance. Furthermore, we devise a cross-modal graph convolutional network to make sense of the incongruity relations between modalities for multi-modal sarcasm detection. Extensive experimental results and in-depth analysis show that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance in multi-modal sarcasm detection.
In this paper, we firstly empirically find that existing models struggle to handle hard mentions due to their insufficient contexts, which consequently limits their overall typing performance. To this end, we propose to exploit sibling mentions for enhancing the mention representations.Specifically, we present two different metrics for sibling selection and employ an attentive graph neural network to aggregate information from sibling mentions. The proposed graph model is scalable in that unseen test mentions are allowed to be added as new nodes for inference.Exhaustive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our sibling learning strategy, where our model outperforms ten strong baselines. Moreover, our experiments indeed prove the superiority of sibling mentions in helping clarify the types for hard mentions.
Representations of events described in text are important for various tasks. In this work, we present SWCC: a Simultaneous Weakly supervised Contrastive learning and Clustering framework for event representation learning. SWCC learns event representations by making better use of co-occurrence information of events. Specifically, we introduce a weakly supervised contrastive learning method that allows us to consider multiple positives and multiple negatives, and a prototype-based clustering method that avoids semantically related events being pulled apart. For model training, SWCC learns representations by simultaneously performing weakly supervised contrastive learning and prototype-based clustering. Experimental results show that SWCC outperforms other baselines on Hard Similarity and Transitive Sentence Similarity tasks. In addition, a thorough analysis of the prototype-based clustering method demonstrates that the learned prototype vectors are able to implicitly capture various relations between events.
Argument pair extraction (APE) aims to automatically mine argument pairs from two interrelated argumentative documents. Existing studies typically identify argument pairs indirectly by predicting sentence-level relations between two documents, neglecting the modeling of the holistic argument-level interactions. Towards this issue, we propose to address APE via a machine reading comprehension (MRC) framework with two phases. The first phase employs an argument mining (AM) query to identify all arguments in two documents. The second phase considers each identified argument as an APE query to extract its paired arguments from another document, allowing to better capture the argument-level interactions. Also, this framework enables these two phases to be jointly trained in a single MRC model, thereby maximizing the mutual benefits of them. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach achieves the best performance, outperforming the state-of-the-art method by 7.11% in F1 score.
Continual Language Learning (CLL) in multilingual translation is inevitable when new languages are required to be translated. Due to the lack of unified and generalized benchmarks, the evaluation of existing methods is greatly influenced by experimental design which usually has a big gap from the industrial demands. In this work, we propose the first Continual Language Learning Evaluation benchmark CLLE in multilingual translation. CLLE consists of a Chinese-centric corpus — CN-25 and two CLL tasks — the close-distance language continual learning task and the language family continual learning task designed for real and disparate demands. Different from existing translation benchmarks, CLLE considers several restrictions for CLL, including domain distribution alignment, content overlap, language diversity, and the balance of corpus. Furthermore, we propose a novel framework COMETA based on Constrained Optimization and META-learning to alleviate catastrophic forgetting and dependency on history training data by using a meta-model to retain the important parameters for old languages. Our experiments prove that CLLE is a challenging CLL benchmark and that our proposed method is effective when compared with other strong baselines. Due to the construction of the corpus, the task designing and the evaluation method are independent of the centric language, we also construct and release the English-centric corpus EN-25 to facilitate academic research.
We propose a simple ranking strategy to solve a generative commonsense question answering (QA) problem. Compared with multiple-choice QA, it is challenging because the answers to a question are not unique and they are supposed to be popular and diverse. Our strategy exploits the dataset itself and negative samples that we collect from WordNet to train a ranker that picks out the most popular answers for commonsense questions. The effectiveness of our strategy is verified on different pre-trained masked language models (MLMs) in a pipeline framework, where an MLM reranks the generated answers. Further, we explore an end-to-end framework where MLMs are utilized to guide the generation of generative language models (GLMs). Taking advantage of reinforcement learning, we apply policy gradient to train a GLM with the rewards fed back by an MLM. Empirical results on ProtoQA dataset demonstrate that MLMs can acquire the ability to distinguish the popular answers and improve the typical answer generation of GLMs as well.
Extracting fine-grained structural information between argumentation component (AC) pairs is essential for argumentation relation classification (ARC). However, most previous studies attempt to model the relationship between AC pairs using AC level similarity or semantically relevant features. They ignore the complex interaction between AC pairs and cannot effectively reason the argumentation relation deeply.Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel dual prior graph neural network (DPGNN) to jointly explore the probing knowledge derived from pre-trained language models (PLMs) and the syntactical information for comprehensively modeling the relationship between AC pairs. Specifically, we construct a probing graph by using probing knowledge derived from PLMs to recognize and align the relational information within and across the argumentation components. In addition, we propose a mutual dependency graph for the AC pair to reason the fine-grained syntactic structural information, in which the syntactical correlation between words is set by the dependency information within AC and mutual attention mechanism across ACs. The knowledge learned from the probing graph and the dependency graph are combined to comprehensively capture the aligned relationships of AC pairs for improving the results of ARC. Experimental results on three public datasets show that DPGNN outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines by a noticeable margin.
We present Mask-then-Fill, a flexible and effective data augmentation framework for event extraction. Our approach allows for more flexible manipulation of text and thus can generate more diverse data while keeping the original event structure unchanged as much as possible. Specifically, it first randomly masks out an adjunct sentence fragment and then infills a variable-length text span with a fine-tuned infilling model. The main advantage lies in that it can replace a fragment of arbitrary length in the text with another fragment of variable length, compared to the existing methods which can only replace a single word or a fixed-length fragment. On trigger and argument extraction tasks, the proposed framework is more effective than baseline methods and it demonstrates particularly strong results in the low-resource setting. Our further analysis shows that it achieves a good balance between diversity and distributional similarity.
We present MCPG: a simple and effectiveapproach for controllable unsupervised paraphrase generation, which is also flexible toadapt to specific domains without extra training. MCPG is controllable in different levels: local lexicons, global semantics, and universal styles. The unsupervised paradigm ofMCPG combines factual keywords and diversified semantic embeddings as local lexical andglobal semantic constraints. The semantic embeddings are diversified by standard dropout,which is exploited for the first time to increaseinference diversity by us. Moreover, MCPGis qualified with good domain adaptability byadding a transfer vector as a universal style constraint, which is refined from the exemplars retrieved from the corpus of the target domain in atraining-free way. Extensive experiments showthat MCPG outperforms state-of-the-art unsupervised baselines by a margin. Meanwhile,our domain-adapted MCPG also achieves competitive performance with strong supervisedbaselines even without training.
Argument generation is an important but challenging task in computational argumentation.Existing studies have mainly focused on generating individual short arguments, while research on generating long and coherent argumentative essays is still under-explored.In this paper, we propose a new task, Argumentative Essay Generation (AEG).Given a writing prompt, the goal of AEG is to automatically generate an argumentative essay with strong persuasiveness.We construct a large-scale dataset, ArgEssay, for this new task and establish a strong model based on a dual-decoder Transformer architecture.Our proposed model contains two decoders, a planning decoder (PD) and a writing decoder (WD), where PD is used to generate a sequence for essay content planning and WD incorporates the planning information to write an essay.Further, we pre-train this model on a large news dataset to enhance the plan-and-write paradigm.Automatic and human evaluation results show that our model can generate more coherent and persuasive essays with higher diversity and less repetition compared to several baselines.
Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction (ASTE) aims to extract the aspect terms along with the corresponding opinion terms and the expressed sentiments in the review, which is an important task in sentiment analysis. Previous research efforts generally address the ASTE task in an end-to-end fashion through the table-filling formalization, in which the triplets are represented by a two-dimensional (2D) table of word-pair relations. Under this formalization, a term-level relation is decomposed into multiple independent word-level relations, which leads to relation inconsistency and boundary insensitivity in the face of multi-word aspect terms and opinion terms. To overcome these issues, we propose Boundary-Driven Table-Filling (BDTF), which represents each triplet as a relation region in the 2D table and transforms the ASTE task into detection and classification of relation regions. We also notice that the quality of the table representation greatly affects the performance of BDTF. Therefore, we develop an effective relation representation learning approach to learn the table representation, which can fully exploit both word-to-word interactions and relation-to-relation interactions. Experiments on several public benchmarks show that the proposed approach achieves state-of-the-art performances.
This paper investigates the sentiment analysis task from a novel perspective by incorporating sentiment knowledge and eye movement into a graph architecture, aiming to draw the eye movement-based sentiment relationships for learning the sentiment expression of the context. To be specific, we first explore a linguistic probing eye movement paradigm to extract eye movement features based on the close relationship between linguistic features and the early and late processes of human reading behavior. Furthermore, to derive eye movement features with sentiment concepts, we devise a novel weighting strategy to integrate sentiment scores extracted from affective commonsense knowledge into eye movement features, called sentiment-eye movement weights. Then, the sentiment-eye movement weights are exploited to build the sentiment-eye movement guided graph (SEMGraph) model, so as to model the intricate sentiment relationships in the context. Experimental results on two sentiment analysis datasets with eye movement signals and three sentiment analysis datasets without eye movement signals show that the proposed SEMGraph achieves state-of-the-art performance, and can also be directly generalized to those sentiment analysis datasets without eye movement signals.
Argument mining (AM) is a challenging task as it requires recognizing the complex argumentation structures involving multiple subtasks.To handle all subtasks of AM in an end-to-end fashion, previous works generally transform AM into a dependency parsing task.However, such methods largely require complex pre- and post-processing to realize the task transformation.In this paper, we investigate the end-to-end AM task from a novel perspective by proposing a generative framework, in which the expected outputs of AM are framed as a simple target sequence. Then, we employ a pre-trained sequence-to-sequence language model with a constrained pointer mechanism (CPM) to model the clues for all the subtasks of AM in the light of the target sequence. Furthermore, we devise a reconstructed positional encoding (RPE) to alleviate the order biases induced by the autoregressive generation paradigm.Experimental results show that our proposed framework achieves new state-of-the-art performance on two AM benchmarks.
This paper describes our system that participated in the SemEval-2022 Task 10: Structured Sentiment Analysis, which aims to extract opinion tuples from texts.A full opinion tuple generally contains an opinion holder, an opinion target, the sentiment expression, and the corresponding polarity.The complex structure of the opinion tuple makes the task challenging.To address this task, we formalize it as a span-relation extraction problem and propose a two-stage extraction framework accordingly.In the first stage, we employ the span module to enumerate spans and then recognize the type of every span.In the second stage, we employ the relation module to determine the relation between spans.Our system achieves competitive results and ranks among the top-10 systems in almost subtasks.
Deep neural models have become the mainstream in answer selection, yielding state-of-the-art performance. However, these models tend to rely on spurious correlations between prediction labels and input features, which in general suffer from robustness and generalization. In this paper, we propose a novel Spurious Correlation reduction method to improve the robustness of the neural ANswer selection models (SCAN) from the sample and feature perspectives by removing the feature dependencies and language biases in answer selection. First, from the sample perspective, we propose a feature decorrelation module by learning a weight for each instance at the training phase to remove the feature dependencies and reduce the spurious correlations without prior knowledge of such correlations. Second, from the feature perspective, we propose a feature debiasing module with contrastive learning to alleviate the negative language biases (spurious correlations) and further improve the robustness of the AS models. Experimental results on three benchmark datasets show that SCAN achieves substantial improvements over strong baselines. For reproducibility, we will release our code and data upon the publication of this paper.
The existing research efforts in Multimodal Sentiment Analysis (MSA) have focused on developing the expressive ability of neural networks to fuse information from different modalities. However, these approaches lack a mechanism to understand the complex relations within and across different modalities, since some sentiments may be scattered in different modalities. To this end, in this paper, we propose a novel hierarchical graph contrastive learning (HGraph-CL) framework for MSA, aiming to explore the intricate relations of intra- and inter-modal representations for sentiment extraction. Specifically, regarding the intra-modal level, we build a unimodal graph for each modality representation to account for the modality-specific sentiment implications. Based on it, a graph contrastive learning strategy is adopted to explore the potential relations based on unimodal graph augmentations. Furthermore, we construct a multimodal graph of each instance based on the unimodal graphs to grasp the sentiment relations between different modalities. Then, in light of the multimodal augmentation graphs, a graph contrastive learning strategy over the inter-modal level is proposed to ulteriorly seek the possible graph structures for precisely learning sentiment relations. This essentially allows the framework to understand the appropriate graph structures for learning intricate relations among different modalities. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets show that the proposed framework outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines in MSA.
In this paper, we investigate the Aspect Category Sentiment Analysis (ACSA) task from a novel perspective by exploring a Beta Distribution guided aspect-aware graph construction based on external knowledge. That is, we are no longer entangled about how to laboriously search the sentiment clues for coarse-grained aspects from the context, but how to preferably find the words highly related to the aspects in the context and determine their importance based on the public knowledge base. In this way, the contextual sentiment clues can be explicitly tracked in ACSA for the aspects in the light of these aspect-related words. To be specific, we first regard each aspect as a pivot to derive aspect-aware words that are highly related to the aspect from external affective commonsense knowledge. Then, we employ Beta Distribution to educe the aspect-aware weight, which reflects the importance to the aspect, for each aspect-aware word. Afterward, the aspect-aware words are served as the substitutes of the coarse-grained aspect to construct graphs for leveraging the aspect-related contextual sentiment dependencies in ACSA. Experiments on 6 benchmark datasets show that our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art baseline methods.
Aspect term extraction aims to extract aspect terms from a review sentence that users have expressed opinions on. One of the remaining challenges for aspect term extraction resides in the lack of sufficient annotated data. While self-training is potentially an effective method to address this issue, the pseudo-labels it yields on unlabeled data could induce noise. In this paper, we use two means to alleviate the noise in the pseudo-labels. One is that inspired by the curriculum learning, we refine the conventional self-training to progressive self-training. Specifically, the base model infers pseudo-labels on a progressive subset at each iteration, where samples in the subset become harder and more numerous as the iteration proceeds. The other is that we use a discriminator to filter the noisy pseudo-labels. Experimental results on four SemEval datasets show that our model significantly outperforms the previous baselines and achieves state-of-the-art performance.
Auxiliary information from multiple sources has been demonstrated to be effective in zero-shot fine-grained entity typing (ZFET). However, there lacks a comprehensive understanding about how to make better use of the existing information sources and how they affect the performance of ZFET. In this paper, we empirically study three kinds of auxiliary information: context consistency, type hierarchy and background knowledge (e.g., prototypes and descriptions) of types, and propose a multi-source fusion model (MSF) targeting these sources. The performance obtains up to 11.42% and 22.84% absolute gains over state-of-the-art baselines on BBN and Wiki respectively with regard to macro F1 scores. More importantly, we further discuss the characteristics, merits and demerits of each information source and provide an intuitive understanding of the complementarity among them.
Argument pair extraction (APE) aims to extract interactive argument pairs from two passages of a discussion. Previous work studied this task in the context of peer review and rebuttal, and decomposed it into a sequence labeling task and a sentence relation classification task. However, despite the promising performance, such an approach obtains the argument pairs implicitly by the two decomposed tasks, lacking explicitly modeling of the argument-level interactions between argument pairs. In this paper, we tackle the APE task by a mutual guidance framework, which could utilize the information of an argument in one passage to guide the identification of arguments that can form pairs with it in another passage. In this manner, two passages can mutually guide each other in the process of APE. Furthermore, we propose an inter-sentence relation graph to effectively model the inter-relations between two sentences and thus facilitates the extraction of argument pairs. Our proposed method can better represent the holistic argument-level semantics and thus explicitly capture the complex correlations between argument pairs. Experimental results show that our approach significantly outperforms the current state-of-the-art model.
Current approaches to empathetic response generation focus on learning a model to predict an emotion label and generate a response based on this label and have achieved promising results. However, the emotion cause, an essential factor for empathetic responding, is ignored. The emotion cause is a stimulus for human emotions. Recognizing the emotion cause is helpful to better understand human emotions so as to generate more empathetic responses. To this end, we propose a novel framework that improves empathetic response generation by recognizing emotion cause in conversations. Specifically, an emotion reasoner is designed to predict a context emotion label and a sequence of emotion cause-oriented labels, which indicate whether the word is related to the emotion cause. Then we devise both hard and soft gated attention mechanisms to incorporate the emotion cause into response generation. Experiments show that incorporating emotion cause information improves the performance of the model on both emotion recognition and response generation.
The goal of argumentation mining is to automatically extract argumentation structures from argumentative texts. Most existing methods determine argumentative relations by exhaustively enumerating all possible pairs of argument components, which suffer from low efficiency and class imbalance. Moreover, due to the complex nature of argumentation, there is, so far, no universal method that can address both tree and non-tree structured argumentation. Towards these issues, we propose a neural transition-based model for argumentation mining, which incrementally builds an argumentation graph by generating a sequence of actions, avoiding inefficient enumeration operations. Furthermore, our model can handle both tree and non-tree structured argumentation without introducing any structural constraints. Experimental results show that our model achieves the best performance on two public datasets of different structures.
This ability to learn consecutive tasks without forgetting how to perform previously trained problems is essential for developing an online dialogue system. This paper proposes an effective continual learning method for the task-oriented dialogue system with iterative network pruning, expanding, and masking (TPEM), which preserves performance on previously encountered tasks while accelerating learning progress on subsequent tasks. Specifically, TPEM (i) leverages network pruning to keep the knowledge for old tasks, (ii) adopts network expanding to create free weights for new tasks, and (iii) introduces task-specific network masking to alleviate the negative impact of fixed weights of old tasks on new tasks. We conduct extensive experiments on seven different tasks from three benchmark datasets and show empirically that TPEM leads to significantly improved results over the strong competitors.
This paper presents the winning system that participated in SemEval-2021 Task 5: Toxic Spans Detection. This task aims to locate those spans that attribute to the text’s toxicity within a text, which is crucial for semi-automated moderation in online discussions. We formalize this task as the Sequence Labeling (SL) problem and the Span Boundary Detection (SBD) problem separately and employ three state-of-the-art models. Next, we integrate predictions of these models to produce a more credible and complement result. Our system achieves a char-level score of 70.83%, ranking 1/91. In addition, we also explore the lexicon-based method, which is strongly interpretable and flexible in practice.
Emotion-cause pair extraction aims to extract all potential pairs of emotions and corresponding causes from unannotated emotion text. Most existing methods are pipelined framework, which identifies emotions and extracts causes separately, leading to a drawback of error propagation. Towards this issue, we propose a transition-based model to transform the task into a procedure of parsing-like directed graph construction. The proposed model incrementally generates the directed graph with labeled edges based on a sequence of actions, from which we can recognize emotions with the corresponding causes simultaneously, thereby optimizing separate subtasks jointly and maximizing mutual benefits of tasks interdependently. Experimental results show that our approach achieves the best performance, outperforming the state-of-the-art methods by 6.71% (p<0.01) in F1 measure.
As a typical multi-layered semi-conscious language phenomenon, sarcasm is widely existed in social media text for enhancing the emotion expression. Thus, the detection and processing of sarcasm is important to social media analysis.However, most existing sarcasm dataset are in English and there is still a lack of authoritative Chinese sarcasm dataset. In this paper, we presents the design and construction of a largest high-quality Chinese sarcasm dataset, which contains 2,486 manual annotated sarcastic texts and 89,296 non-sarcastic texts. Furthermore, a balanced dataset through elaborately sampling the same amount non-sarcastic texts for training sarcasm classifier. Using the dataset as the benchmark, some sarcasm classification methods are evaluated.
This paper presents the design and construction of a large-scale target-based sentiment annotation corpus on Chinese financial news text. Different from the most existing paragraph/document-based annotation corpus, in this study, target-based fine-grained sentiment annotation is performed. The companies, brands and other financial entities are regarded as the targets. The clause reflecting the profitability, loss or other business status of financial entities is regarded as the sentiment expression for determining the polarity. Based on high quality annotation guideline and effective quality control strategy, a corpus with 8,314 target-level sentiment annotation is constructed on 6,336 paragraphs from Chinese financial news text. Based on this corpus, several state-of-the-art sentiment analysis models are evaluated.
In this paper, we explore a novel solution of constructing a heterogeneous graph for each instance by leveraging aspect-focused and inter-aspect contextual dependencies for the specific aspect and propose an Interactive Graph Convolutional Networks (InterGCN) model for aspect sentiment analysis. Specifically, an ordinary dependency graph is first constructed for each sentence over the dependency tree. Then we refine the graph by considering the syntactical dependencies between contextual words and aspect-specific words to derive the aspect-focused graph. Subsequently, the aspect-focused graph and the corresponding embedding matrix are fed into the aspect-focused GCN to capture the key aspect and contextual words. Besides, to interactively extract the inter-aspect relations for the specific aspect, an inter-aspect GCN is adopted to model the representations learned by aspect-focused GCN based on the inter-aspect graph which is constructed by the relative dependencies between the aspect words and other aspects. Hence, the model can be aware of the significant contextual and aspect words when interactively learning the sentiment features for a specific aspect. Experimental results on four benchmark datasets illustrate that our proposed model outperforms state-of-the-art methods and substantially boosts the performance in comparison with BERT.
Existing end-to-end task-oriented dialog systems struggle to dynamically model long dialog context for interactions and effectively incorporate knowledge base (KB) information into dialog generation. To conquer these limitations, we propose a Dual Dynamic Memory Network (DDMN) for multi-turn dialog generation, which maintains two core components: dialog memory manager and KB memory manager. The dialog memory manager dynamically expands the dialog memory turn by turn and keeps track of dialog history with an updating mechanism, which encourages the model to filter irrelevant dialog history and memorize important newly coming information. The KB memory manager shares the structural KB triples throughout the whole conversation, and dynamically extracts KB information with a memory pointer at each turn. Experimental results on three benchmark datasets demonstrate that DDMN significantly outperforms the strong baselines in terms of both automatic evaluation and human evaluation. Our code is available at https://github.com/siat-nlp/DDMN.
Pre-trained language models (e.g., BERT) have achieved significant success in various natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, high storage and computational costs obstruct pre-trained language models to be effectively deployed on resource-constrained devices. In this paper, we propose a novel BERT distillation method based on many-to-many layer mapping, which allows each intermediate student layer to learn from any intermediate teacher layers. In this way, our model can learn from different teacher layers adaptively for different NLP tasks. In addition, we leverage Earth Mover’s Distance (EMD) to compute the minimum cumulative cost that must be paid to transform knowledge from teacher network to student network. EMD enables effective matching for the many-to-many layer mapping. Furthermore, we propose a cost attention mechanism to learn the layer weights used in EMD automatically, which is supposed to further improve the model’s performance and accelerate convergence time. Extensive experiments on GLUE benchmark demonstrate that our model achieves competitive performance compared to strong competitors in terms of both accuracy and model compression
The challenge of both achieving task completion by querying the knowledge base and generating human-like responses for task-oriented dialogue systems is attracting increasing research attention. In this paper, we propose a “Two-Teacher One-Student” learning framework (TTOS) for task-oriented dialogue, with the goal of retrieving accurate KB entities and generating human-like responses simultaneously. TTOS amalgamates knowledge from two teacher networks that together provide comprehensive guidance to build a high-quality task-oriented dialogue system (student network). Each teacher network is trained via reinforcement learning with a goal-specific reward, which can be viewed as an expert towards the goal and transfers the professional characteristic to the student network. Instead of adopting the classic student-teacher learning of forcing the output of a student network to exactly mimic the soft targets produced by the teacher networks, we introduce two discriminators as in generative adversarial network (GAN) to transfer knowledge from two teachers to the student. The usage of discriminators relaxes the rigid coupling between the student and teachers. Extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets (i.e., CamRest and In-Car Assistant) demonstrate that TTOS significantly outperforms baseline methods.
The task of emotion-cause pair extraction deals with finding all emotions and the corresponding causes in unannotated emotion texts. Most recent studies are based on the likelihood of Cartesian product among all clause candidates, resulting in a high computational cost. Targeting this issue, we regard the task as a sequence labeling problem and propose a novel tagging scheme with coding the distance between linked components into the tags, so that emotions and the corresponding causes can be extracted simultaneously. Accordingly, an end-to-end model is presented to process the input texts from left to right, always with linear time complexity, leading to a speed up. Experimental results show that our proposed model achieves the best performance, outperforming the state-of-the-art method by 2.26% (p<0.001) in F1 measure.
Attention-based neural models were employed to detect the different aspects and sentiment polarities of the same target in targeted aspect-based sentiment analysis (TABSA). However, existing methods do not specifically pre-train reasonable embeddings for targets and aspects in TABSA. This may result in targets or aspects having the same vector representations in different contexts and losing the context-dependent information. To address this problem, we propose a novel method to refine the embeddings of targets and aspects. Such pivotal embedding refinement utilizes a sparse coefficient vector to adjust the embeddings of target and aspect from the context. Hence the embeddings of targets and aspects can be refined from the highly correlative words instead of using context-independent or randomly initialized vectors. Experiment results on two benchmark datasets show that our approach yields the state-of-the-art performance in TABSA task.
In recent years, advances in neural variational inference have achieved many successes in text processing. Examples include neural topic models which are typically built upon variational autoencoder (VAE) with an objective of minimising the error of reconstructing original documents based on the learned latent topic vectors. However, minimising reconstruction errors does not necessarily lead to high quality topics. In this paper, we borrow the idea of reinforcement learning and incorporate topic coherence measures as reward signals to guide the learning of a VAE-based topic model. Furthermore, our proposed model is able to automatically separating background words dynamically from topic words, thus eliminating the pre-processing step of filtering infrequent and/or top frequent words, typically required for learning traditional topic models. Experimental results on the 20 Newsgroups and the NIPS datasets show superior performance both on perplexity and topic coherence measure compared to state-of-the-art neural topic models.
Emotion cause analysis, which aims to identify the reasons behind emotions, is a key topic in sentiment analysis. A variety of neural network models have been proposed recently, however, these previous models mostly focus on the learning architecture with local textual information, ignoring the discourse and prior knowledge, which play crucial roles in human text comprehension. In this paper, we propose a new method to extract emotion cause with a hierarchical neural model and knowledge-based regularizations, which aims to incorporate discourse context information and restrain the parameters by sentiment lexicon and common knowledge. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance on two public datasets in different languages (Chinese and English), outperforming a number of competitive baselines by at least 2.08% in F-measure.
Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) has attracted increasing attention recently due to its broad applications. In existing ABSA datasets, most sentences contain only one aspect or multiple aspects with the same sentiment polarity, which makes ABSA task degenerate to sentence-level sentiment analysis. In this paper, we present a new large-scale Multi-Aspect Multi-Sentiment (MAMS) dataset, in which each sentence contains at least two different aspects with different sentiment polarities. The release of this dataset would push forward the research in this field. In addition, we propose simple yet effective CapsNet and CapsNet-BERT models which combine the strengths of recent NLP advances. Experiments on our new dataset show that the proposed model significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art baseline methods
Inferring the agreement/disagreement relation in debates, especially in online debates, is one of the fundamental tasks in argumentation mining. The expressions of agreement/disagreement usually rely on argumentative expressions in text as well as interactions between participants in debates. Previous works usually lack the capability of jointly modeling these two factors. To alleviate this problem, this paper proposes a hybrid neural attention model which combines self and cross attention mechanism to locate salient part from textual context and interaction between users. Experimental results on three (dis)agreement inference datasets show that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art models.
Combining the virtues of probability graphic models and neural networks, Conditional Variational Auto-encoder (CVAE) has shown promising performance in applications such as response generation. However, existing CVAE-based models often generate responses from a single latent variable which may not be sufficient to model high variability in responses. To solve this problem, we propose a novel model that sequentially introduces a series of latent variables to condition the generation of each word in the response sequence. In addition, the approximate posteriors of these latent variables are augmented with a backward Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), which allows the latent variables to capture long-term dependencies of future tokens in generation. To facilitate training, we supplement our model with an auxiliary objective that predicts the subsequent bag of words. Empirical experiments conducted on Opensubtitle and Reddit datasets show that the proposed model leads to significant improvement on both relevance and diversity over state-of-the-art baselines.
Emotion cause extraction aims to identify the reasons behind a certain emotion expressed in text. It is a much more difficult task compared to emotion classification. Inspired by recent advances in using deep memory networks for question answering (QA), we propose a new approach which considers emotion cause identification as a reading comprehension task in QA. Inspired by convolutional neural networks, we propose a new mechanism to store relevant context in different memory slots to model context information. Our proposed approach can extract both word level sequence features and lexical features. Performance evaluation shows that our method achieves the state-of-the-art performance on a recently released emotion cause dataset, outperforming a number of competitive baselines by at least 3.01% in F-measure.
This paper presents the design and construction of a Chinese opinion corpus based on the online product reviews. Based on the observation on the characteristics of opinion expression in Chinese online product reviews, which is quite different from in the formal texts such as news, an annotation framework is proposed to guide the construction of the first Chinese opinion corpus based on online product reviews. The opinionated sentences are manually identified from the review text. Furthermore, for each comment in the opinionated sentence, its 13 describing elements are annotated including the expressions related to the interested product attributes and user opinions as well as the polarity and degree of the opinions. Currently, 12,724 comments are annotated in 10,935 sentences from review text. Through statistical analysis on the opinion corpus, some interesting characteristics of Chinese opinion expression are presented. This corpus is shown helpful to support systematic research on Chinese opinion analysis.
An ontology describes conceptual knowledge in a specific domain. A lexical base collects a repository of words and gives independent definition of concepts. In this paper, we propose to use FCA as a tool to help constructing an ontology through an existing lexical base. We mainly address two issues. The first issue is how to select attributes to visualize the relations between lexical terms. The second issue is how to revise lexical definitions through analysing the relations in the ontology. Thus the focus is on the effect of interaction between a lexical base and an ontology for the purpose of good ontology construction. Finally, experiments have been conducted to verify our ideas.
This paper presents an annotated Chinese collocation bank developed at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. The definition of collocation with good linguistic consistency and good computational operability is first discussed and the properties of collocations are then presented. Secondly, based on the combination of different properties, collocations are classified into four types. Thirdly, the annotation guideline is presented. Fourthly, the implementation issues for collocation bank construction are addressed including the annotation with categorization, dependency and contextual information. Currently, the collocation bank is completed for 3,643 headwords in a 5-million-word corpus.