Ruihai Dong


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Learning to Generalize for Cross-domain QA
Yingjie Niu | Linyi Yang | Ruihai Dong | Yue Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

There have been growing concerns regarding the out-of-domain generalization ability of natural language processing (NLP) models, particularly in question-answering (QA) tasks. Current synthesized data augmentation methods for QA are hampered by increased training costs. To address this issue, we propose a novel approach that combines prompting methods and linear probing with fine-tuning strategy, which does not entail additional cost. Our method has been theoretically and empirically shown to be effective in enhancing the generalization ability of both generative and discriminative models. Our approach outperforms state-of-the-art baselines, with an average increase in F1 score of 4.5%-7.9%. Furthermore, our method can be easily integrated into any pre-trained models and offers a promising solution to the under-explored cross-domain QA task.


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LiGCN: Label-interpretable Graph Convolutional Networks for Multi-label Text Classification
Irene Li | Aosong Feng | Hao Wu | Tianxiao Li | Toyotaro Suzumura | Ruihai Dong
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Deep Learning on Graphs for Natural Language Processing (DLG4NLP 2022)

Multi-label text classification (MLTC) is an attractive and challenging task in natural language processing (NLP). Compared with single-label text classification, MLTC has a wider range of applications in practice. In this paper, we propose a label-interpretable graph convolutional network model to solve the MLTC problem by modeling tokens and labels as nodes in a heterogeneous graph. In this way, we are able to take into account multiple relationships including token-level relationships. Besides, the model allows better interpretability for predicted labels as the token-label edges are exposed. We evaluate our method on four real-world datasets and it achieves competitive scores against selected baseline methods. Specifically, this model achieves a gain of 0.14 on the F1 score in the small label set MLTC, and 0.07 in the large label set scenario.

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A Novel Perspective to Look At Attention: Bi-level Attention-based Explainable Topic Modeling for News Classification
Dairui Liu | Derek Greene | Ruihai Dong
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Many recent deep learning-based solutions have adopted the attention mechanism in various tasks in the field of NLP. However, the inherent characteristics of deep learning models and the flexibility of the attention mechanism increase the models’ complexity, thus leading to challenges in model explainability. To address this challenge, we propose a novel practical framework by utilizing a two-tier attention architecture to decouple the complexity of explanation and the decision-making process. We apply it in the context of a news article classification task. The experiments on two large-scaled news corpora demonstrate that the proposed model can achieve competitive performance with many state-of-the-art alternatives and illustrate its appropriateness from an explainability perspective. We release the source code here.


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Exploring the Efficacy of Automatically Generated Counterfactuals for Sentiment Analysis
Linyi Yang | Jiazheng Li | Padraig Cunningham | Yue Zhang | Barry Smyth | Ruihai Dong
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

While state-of-the-art NLP models have been achieving the excellent performance of a wide range of tasks in recent years, important questions are being raised about their robustness and their underlying sensitivity to systematic biases that may exist in their training and test data. Such issues come to be manifest in performance problems when faced with out-of-distribution data in the field. One recent solution has been to use counterfactually augmented datasets in order to reduce any reliance on spurious patterns that may exist in the original data. Producing high-quality augmented data can be costly and time-consuming as it usually needs to involve human feedback and crowdsourcing efforts. In this work, we propose an alternative by describing and evaluating an approach to automatically generating counterfactual data for the purpose of data augmentation and explanation. A comprehensive evaluation on several different datasets and using a variety of state-of-the-art benchmarks demonstrate how our approach can achieve significant improvements in model performance when compared to models training on the original data and even when compared to models trained with the benefit of human-generated augmented data.


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Generating Plausible Counterfactual Explanations for Deep Transformers in Financial Text Classification
Linyi Yang | Eoin Kenny | Tin Lok James Ng | Yi Yang | Barry Smyth | Ruihai Dong
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Corporate mergers and acquisitions (M&A) account for billions of dollars of investment globally every year and offer an interesting and challenging domain for artificial intelligence. However, in these highly sensitive domains, it is crucial to not only have a highly robust/accurate model, but be able to generate useful explanations to garner a user’s trust in the automated system. Regrettably, the recent research regarding eXplainable AI (XAI) in financial text classification has received little to no attention, and many current methods for generating textual-based explanations result in highly implausible explanations, which damage a user’s trust in the system. To address these issues, this paper proposes a novel methodology for producing plausible counterfactual explanations, whilst exploring the regularization benefits of adversarial training on language models in the domain of FinTech. Exhaustive quantitative experiments demonstrate that not only does this approach improve the model accuracy when compared to the current state-of-the-art and human performance, but it also generates counterfactual explanations which are significantly more plausible based on human trials.


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Leveraging BERT to Improve the FEARS Index for Stock Forecasting
Linyi Yang | Ruihai Dong | Tin Lok James Ng | Yang Xu
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Financial Technology and Natural Language Processing