Ruiqi Zhong


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Meta-learning via Language Model In-context Tuning
Yanda Chen | Ruiqi Zhong | Sheng Zha | George Karypis | He He
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The goal of meta-learning is to learn to adapt to a new task with only a few labeled examples. Inspired by the recent progress in large language models, we propose in-context tuning (ICT), which recasts task adaptation and prediction as a simple sequence prediction problem: to form the input sequence, we concatenate the task instruction, labeled in-context examples, and the target input to predict; to meta-train the model to learn from in-context examples, we fine-tune a pre-trained language model (LM) to predict the target label given the input sequence on a collection of tasks.We benchmark our method on two collections of text classification tasks: LAMA and BinaryClfs. Compared to MAML which adapts the model through gradient descent, our method leverages the inductive bias of pre-trained LMs to perform pattern matching, and outperforms MAML by an absolute 6% average AUC-ROC score on BinaryClfs, gaining more advantage with increasing model size. Compared to non-fine-tuned in-context learning (i.e. prompting a raw LM), in-context tuning meta-trains the model to learn from in-context examples. On BinaryClfs, ICT improves the average AUC-ROC score by an absolute 10%, and reduces the variance due to example ordering by 6x and example choices by 2x.


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Are Larger Pretrained Language Models Uniformly Better? Comparing Performance at the Instance Level
Ruiqi Zhong | Dhruba Ghosh | Dan Klein | Jacob Steinhardt
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Adapting Language Models for Zero-shot Learning by Meta-tuning on Dataset and Prompt Collections
Ruiqi Zhong | Kristy Lee | Zheng Zhang | Dan Klein
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Large pre-trained language models (LMs) such as GPT-3 have acquired a surprising ability to perform zero-shot learning. For example, to classify sentiment without any training examples, we can “prompt” the LM with the review and the label description “Does the user like this movie?”, and ask whether the next word is “yes” or “no”. However, the next word prediction training objective is still misaligned with the target zero-shot learning objective. To address this weakness, we propose meta-tuning, which directly optimizes the zero-shot learning objective by fine-tuning pre-trained language models on a collection of datasets. We focus on classification tasks, and construct the meta-dataset by aggregating 43 existing datasets and annotating 441 label descriptions in a question-answering (QA) format. When evaluated on unseen tasks, meta-tuned models outperform a same-sized QA model and the previous SOTA zero-shot learning system based on natural language inference. Additionally, increasing parameter count from 220M to 770M improves AUC-ROC scores by 6.3%, and we forecast that even larger models would perform better. Therefore, measuring zero-shot learning performance on language models out-of-the-box might underestimate their true potential, and community-wide efforts on aggregating datasets and unifying their formats can help build models that answer prompts better.


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Semantic Scaffolds for Pseudocode-to-Code Generation
Ruiqi Zhong | Mitchell Stern | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We propose a method for program generation based on semantic scaffolds, lightweight structures representing the high-level semantic and syntactic composition of a program. By first searching over plausible scaffolds then using these as constraints for a beam search over programs, we achieve better coverage of the search space when compared with existing techniques. We apply our hierarchical search method to the SPoC dataset for pseudocode-to-code generation, in which we are given line-level natural language pseudocode annotations and aim to produce a program satisfying execution-based test cases. By using semantic scaffolds during inference, we achieve a 10% absolute improvement in top-100 accuracy over the previous state-of-the-art. Additionally, we require only 11 candidates to reach the top-3000 performance of the previous best approach when tested against unseen problems, demonstrating a substantial improvement in efficiency.

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Semantic Evaluation for Text-to-SQL with Distilled Test Suites
Ruiqi Zhong | Tao Yu | Dan Klein
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

We propose test suite accuracy to approximate semantic accuracy for Text-to-SQL models. Our method distills a small test suite of databases that achieves high code coverage for the gold query from a large number of randomly generated databases. At evaluation time, it computes the denotation accuracy of the predicted queries on the distilled test suite, hence calculating a tight upper-bound for semantic accuracy efficiently. We use our proposed method to evaluate 21 models submitted to the Spider leader board and manually verify that our method is always correct on 100 examples. In contrast, the current Spider metric leads to a 2.5% false negative rate on average and 8.1% in the worst case, indicating that test suite accuracy is needed. Our implementation, along with distilled test suites for eleven Text-to-SQL datasets, is publicly available.


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Detecting and Reducing Bias in a High Stakes Domain
Ruiqi Zhong | Yanda Chen | Desmond Patton | Charlotte Selous | Kathy McKeown
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Gang-involved youth in cities such as Chicago sometimes post on social media to express their aggression towards rival gangs and previous research has demonstrated that a deep learning approach can predict aggression and loss in posts. To address the possibility of bias in this sensitive application, we developed an approach to systematically interpret the state of the art model. We found, surprisingly, that it frequently bases its predictions on stop words such as “a” or “on”, an approach that could harm social media users who have no aggressive intentions. To tackle this bias, domain experts annotated the rationales, highlighting words that explain why a tweet is labeled as “aggression”. These new annotations enable us to quantitatively measure how justified the model predictions are, and build models that drastically reduce bias. Our study shows that in high stake scenarios, accuracy alone cannot guarantee a good system and we need new evaluation methods.


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Detecting Gang-Involved Escalation on Social Media Using Context
Serina Chang | Ruiqi Zhong | Ethan Adams | Fei-Tzin Lee | Siddharth Varia | Desmond Patton | William Frey | Chris Kedzie | Kathy McKeown
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Gang-involved youth in cities such as Chicago have increasingly turned to social media to post about their experiences and intents online. In some situations, when they experience the loss of a loved one, their online expression of emotion may evolve into aggression towards rival gangs and ultimately into real-world violence. In this paper, we present a novel system for detecting Aggression and Loss in social media. Our system features the use of domain-specific resources automatically derived from a large unlabeled corpus, and contextual representations of the emotional and semantic content of the user’s recent tweets as well as their interactions with other users. Incorporating context in our Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) leads to a significant improvement.