Recently, the structural reading comprehension (SRC) task on web pages has attracted increasing research interests. Although previous SRC work has leveraged extra information such as HTML tags or XPaths, the informative topology of web pages is not effectively exploited. In this work, we propose a Topological Information Enhanced model (TIE), which transforms the token-level task into a tag-level task by introducing a two-stage process (i.e. node locating and answer refining). Based on that, TIE integrates Graph Attention Network (GAT) and Pre-trained Language Model (PLM) to leverage the topological information of both logical structures and spatial structures. Experimental results demonstrate that our model outperforms strong baselines and achieves state-of-the-art performances on the web-based SRC benchmark WebSRC at the time of writing. The code of TIE will be publicly available at https://github.com/X-LANCE/TIE.
This work aims to tackle the challenging heterogeneous graph encoding problem in the text-to-SQL task. Previous methods are typically node-centric and merely utilize different weight matrices to parameterize edge types, which 1) ignore the rich semantics embedded in the topological structure of edges, and 2) fail to distinguish local and non-local relations for each node. To this end, we propose a Line Graph Enhanced Text-to-SQL (LGESQL) model to mine the underlying relational features without constructing meta-paths. By virtue of the line graph, messages propagate more efficiently through not only connections between nodes, but also the topology of directed edges. Furthermore, both local and non-local relations are integrated distinctively during the graph iteration. We also design an auxiliary task called graph pruning to improve the discriminative capability of the encoder. Our framework achieves state-of-the-art results (62.8% with Glove, 72.0% with Electra) on the cross-domain text-to-SQL benchmark Spider at the time of writing.
Given a database schema, Text-to-SQL aims to translate a natural language question into the corresponding SQL query. Under the setup of cross-domain, traditional semantic parsing models struggle to adapt to unseen database schemas. To improve the model generalization capability for rare and unseen schemas, we propose a new architecture, ShadowGNN, which processes schemas at abstract and semantic levels. By ignoring names of semantic items in databases, abstract schemas are exploited in a well-designed graph projection neural network to obtain delexicalized representation of question and schema. Based on the domain-independent representations, a relation-aware transformer is utilized to further extract logical linking between question and schema. Finally, a SQL decoder with context-free grammar is applied. On the challenging Text-to-SQL benchmark Spider, empirical results show that ShadowGNN outperforms state-of-the-art models. When the annotated data is extremely limited (only 10% training set), ShadowGNN gets over absolute 5% performance gain, which shows its powerful generalization ability. Our implementation will be open-sourced at https://github.com/WowCZ/shadowgnn
Efficient structure encoding for graphs with labeled edges is an important yet challenging point in many graph-based models. This work focuses on AMR-to-text generation – A graph-to-sequence task aiming to recover natural language from Abstract Meaning Representations (AMR). Existing graph-to-sequence approaches generally utilize graph neural networks as their encoders, which have two limitations: 1) The message propagation process in AMR graphs is only guided by the first-order adjacency information. 2) The relationships between labeled edges are not fully considered. In this work, we propose a novel graph encoding framework which can effectively explore the edge relations. We also adopt graph attention networks with higher-order neighborhood information to encode the rich structure in AMR graphs. Experiment results show that our approach obtains new state-of-the-art performance on English AMR benchmark datasets. The ablation analyses also demonstrate that both edge relations and higher-order information are beneficial to graph-to-sequence modeling.
One daunting problem for semantic parsing is the scarcity of annotation. Aiming to reduce nontrivial human labor, we propose a two-stage semantic parsing framework, where the first stage utilizes an unsupervised paraphrase model to convert an unlabeled natural language utterance into the canonical utterance. The downstream naive semantic parser accepts the intermediate output and returns the target logical form. Furthermore, the entire training process is split into two phases: pre-training and cycle learning. Three tailored self-supervised tasks are introduced throughout training to activate the unsupervised paraphrase model. Experimental results on benchmarks Overnight and GeoGranno demonstrate that our framework is effective and compatible with supervised training.
Semantic parsing converts natural language queries into structured logical forms. The lack of training data is still one of the most serious problems in this area. In this work, we develop a semantic parsing framework with the dual learning algorithm, which enables a semantic parser to make full use of data (labeled and even unlabeled) through a dual-learning game. This game between a primal model (semantic parsing) and a dual model (logical form to query) forces them to regularize each other, and can achieve feedback signals from some prior-knowledge. By utilizing the prior-knowledge of logical form structures, we propose a novel reward signal at the surface and semantic levels which tends to generate complete and reasonable logical forms. Experimental results show that our approach achieves new state-of-the-art performance on ATIS dataset and gets competitive performance on OVERNIGHT dataset.