Ruixi Lin


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Mind the Biases: Quantifying Cognitive Biases in Language Model Prompting
Ruixi Lin | Hwee Tou Ng
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

We advocate the importance of exposing uncertainty on results of language model prompting which display bias modes resembling cognitive biases, and propose to help users grasp the level of uncertainty via simple quantifying metrics. Cognitive biases in the human decision making process can lead to flawed responses when we are under uncertainty. Not surprisingly, we have seen biases in language models resembling cognitive biases as a result of training on biased textual data, raising dangers in downstream tasks that are centered around people’s lives if users trust their results too much. In this work, we reveal two bias modes leveraging cognitive biases when we prompt BERT, accompanied by two bias metrics. On a drug-drug interaction extraction task, our bias measurements reveal an error pattern similar to the availability bias when the labels for training prompts are imbalanced, and show that a toning-down transformation of the drug-drug description in a prompt can elicit a bias similar to the framing effect, warning users to distrust when prompting language models for answers.


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Does BERT Know that the IS-A Relation Is Transitive?
Ruixi Lin | Hwee Tou Ng
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

The success of a natural language processing (NLP) system on a task does not amount to fully understanding the complexity of the task, typified by many deep learning models. One such question is: can a black-box model make logically consistent predictions for transitive relations? Recent studies suggest that pre-trained BERT can capture lexico-semantic clues from words in the context. However, to what extent BERT captures the transitive nature of some lexical relations is unclear. From a probing perspective, we examine WordNet word senses and the IS-A relation, which is a transitive relation. That is, for senses A, B, and C, A is-a B and B is-a C entail A is-a C. We aim to quantify how much BERT agrees with the transitive property of IS-A relations, via a minimalist probing setting. Our investigation reveals that BERT’s predictions do not fully obey the transitivity property of the IS-A relation.


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System Combination for Grammatical Error Correction Based on Integer Programming
Ruixi Lin | Hwee Tou Ng
Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP 2021)

In this paper, we propose a system combination method for grammatical error correction (GEC), based on nonlinear integer programming (IP). Our method optimizes a novel F score objective based on error types, and combines multiple end-to-end GEC systems. The proposed IP approach optimizes the selection of a single best system for each grammatical error type present in the data. Experiments of the IP approach on combining state-of-the-art standalone GEC systems show that the combined system outperforms all standalone systems. It improves F0.5 score by 3.61% when combining the two best participating systems in the BEA 2019 shared task, and achieves F0.5 score of 73.08%. We also perform experiments to compare our IP approach with another state-of-the-art system combination method for GEC, demonstrating IP’s competitive combination capability.


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Zara The Supergirl: An Empathetic Personality Recognition System
Pascale Fung | Anik Dey | Farhad Bin Siddique | Ruixi Lin | Yang Yang | Yan Wan | Ho Yin Ricky Chan
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Demonstrations

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Zara: A Virtual Interactive Dialogue System Incorporating Emotion, Sentiment and Personality Recognition
Pascale Fung | Anik Dey | Farhad Bin Siddique | Ruixi Lin | Yang Yang | Dario Bertero | Yan Wan | Ricky Ho Yin Chan | Chien-Sheng Wu
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

Zara, or ‘Zara the Supergirl’ is a virtual robot, that can exhibit empathy while interacting with an user, with the aid of its built in facial and emotion recognition, sentiment analysis, and speech module. At the end of the 5-10 minute conversation, Zara can give a personality analysis of the user based on all the user utterances. We have also implemented a real-time emotion recognition, using a CNN model that detects emotion from raw audio without feature extraction, and have achieved an average of 65.7% accuracy on six different emotion classes, which is an impressive 4.5% improvement from the conventional feature based SVM classification. Also, we have described a CNN based sentiment analysis module trained using out-of-domain data, that recognizes sentiment from the speech recognition transcript, which has a 74.8 F-measure when tested on human-machine dialogues.