Ruochen Zhang


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CroCoSum: A Benchmark Dataset for Cross-Lingual Code-Switched Summarization
Ruochen Zhang | Carsten Eickhoff
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Cross-lingual summarization (CLS) has attracted increasing interest in recent years due to the availability of large-scale web-mined datasets and the advancements of multilingual language models. However, given the rareness of naturally occurring CLS resources, the majority of datasets are forced to rely on translation which can contain overly literal artifacts. This restricts our ability to observe naturally occurring CLS pairs that capture organic diction, including instances of code-switching. This alteration between languages in mid-message is a common phenomenon in multilingual settings yet has been largely overlooked in cross-lingual contexts due to data scarcity. To address this gap, we introduce CroCoSum, a dataset of cross-lingual code-switched summarization of technology news. It consists of over 24,000 English source articles and 18,000 human-written Chinese news summaries, with more than 92% of the summaries containing code-switched phrases. For reference, we evaluate the performance of existing approaches including pipeline, end-to-end, and zero-shot methods. We show that leveraging existing CLS resources as a pretraining step does not improve performance on CroCoSum, indicating the limited generalizability of current datasets. Finally, we discuss the challenges of evaluating cross-lingual summarizers on code-switched generation through qualitative error analyses.


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Current Status of NLP in South East Asia with Insights from Multilingualism and Language Diversity
Alham Fikri Aji | Jessica Zosa Forde | Alyssa Marie Loo | Lintang Sutawika | Skyler Wang | Genta Indra Winata | Zheng-Xin Yong | Ruochen Zhang | A. Seza Doğruöz | Yin Lin Tan | Jan Christian Blaise Cruz
Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing and the 3rd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Tutorial Abstract

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Multilingual Large Language Models Are Not (Yet) Code-Switchers
Ruochen Zhang | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Jan Christian Blaise Cruz | Genta Winata | Alham Aji
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Multilingual Large Language Models (LLMs) have recently shown great capabilities in a wide range of tasks, exhibiting state-of-the-art performance through zero-shot or few-shot prompting methods. While there have been extensive studies on their abilities in monolingual tasks, the investigation of their potential in the context of code-switching (CSW), the practice of alternating languages within an utterance, remains relatively uncharted. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive empirical analysis of various multilingual LLMs, benchmarking their performance across four tasks: sentiment analysis, machine translation, summarization and word-level language identification. Our results indicate that despite multilingual LLMs exhibiting promising outcomes in certain tasks using zero or few-shot prompting, they still underperform in comparison to fine-tuned models of much smaller scales. We argue that current “multilingualism’ in LLMs does not inherently imply proficiency with code-switching texts, calling for future research to bridge this discrepancy.

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Prompting Multilingual Large Language Models to Generate Code-Mixed Texts: The Case of South East Asian Languages
Zheng Xin Yong | Ruochen Zhang | Jessica Forde | Skyler Wang | Arjun Subramonian | Holy Lovenia | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Genta Winata | Lintang Sutawika | Jan Christian Blaise Cruz | Yin Lin Tan | Long Phan | Long Phan | Rowena Garcia | Thamar Solorio | Alham Aji
Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Linguistic Code-Switching

While code-mixing is a common linguistic practice in many parts of the world, collecting high-quality and low-cost code-mixed data remains a challenge for natural language processing (NLP) research. The recent proliferation of Large Language Models (LLMs) compels one to ask: how capable are these systems in generating code-mixed data? In this paper, we explore prompting multilingual LLMs in a zero-shot manner to generate code-mixed data for seven languages in South East Asia (SEA), namely Indonesian, Malay, Chinese, Tagalog, Vietnamese, Tamil, and Singlish. We find that publicly available multilingual instruction-tuned models such as BLOOMZ and Flan-T5-XXL are incapable of producing texts with phrases or clauses from different languages. ChatGPT exhibits inconsistent capabilities in generating code-mixed texts, wherein its performance varies depending on the prompt template and language pairing. For instance, ChatGPT generates fluent and natural Singlish texts (an English-based creole spoken in Singapore), but for English-Tamil language pair, the system mostly produces grammatically incorrect or semantically meaningless utterances. Furthermore, it may erroneously introduce languages not specified in the prompt. Based on our investigation, existing multilingual LLMs exhibit a wide range of proficiency in code-mixed data generation for SEA languages. As such, we advise against using LLMs in this context without extensive human checks.


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SOCCER: An Information-Sparse Discourse State Tracking Collection in the Sports Commentary Domain
Ruochen Zhang | Carsten Eickhoff
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

In the pursuit of natural language understanding, there has been a long standing interest in tracking state changes throughout narratives. Impressive progress has been made in modeling the state of transaction-centric dialogues and procedural texts. However, this problem has been less intensively studied in the realm of general discourse where ground truth descriptions of states may be loosely defined and state changes are less densely distributed over utterances. This paper proposes to turn to simplified, fully observable systems that show some of these properties: Sports events. We curated 2,263 soccer matches including time-stamped natural language commentary accompanied by discrete events such as a team scoring goals, switching players or being penalized with cards. We propose a new task formulation where, given paragraphs of commentary of a game at different timestamps, the system is asked to recognize the occurrence of in-game events. This domain allows for rich descriptions of state while avoiding the complexities of many other real-world settings. As an initial point of performance measurement, we include two baseline methods from the perspectives of sentence classification with temporal dependence and current state-of-the-art generative model, respectively, and demonstrate that even sophisticated existing methods struggle on the state tracking task when the definition of state broadens or non-event chatter becomes prevalent.