Ruoming Pang


pdf bib
STAIR: Learning Sparse Text and Image Representation in Grounded Tokens
Chen Chen | Bowen Zhang | Liangliang Cao | Jiguang Shen | Tom Gunter | Albin Jose | Alexander Toshev | Yantao Zheng | Jonathon Shlens | Ruoming Pang | Yinfei Yang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Image and text retrieval is one of the foundational tasks in the vision and language domain with multiple real-world applications. State-of-the-art contrastive approaches, e.g. CLIP, ALIGN, represent images and texts as dense embeddings and calculate the similarity in the dense embedding space as the matching score. On the other hand, sparse semantic features like bag-of-words models are more interpretable, but believed to suffer from inferior accuracy than dense representations. In this work, we show that it is possible to build a sparse semantic representation that is as powerful as, or even better than, dense presentations. We extend the CLIP model and build a sparse text and image representation (STAIR), where the image and text are mapped to a sparse token space. Each token in the space is a (sub-)word in the vocabulary, which is not only interpretable but also easy to integrate with existing information retrieval systems. STAIR model significantly outperforms a CLIP model with +4.9% and +4.3% absolute Recall@1 improvement on COCO-5k textimage and imagetext retrieval respectively. It also achieved better performance on both of ImageNet zero-shot and linear probing compared to CLIP.


pdf bib
Monotonic Infinite Lookback Attention for Simultaneous Machine Translation
Naveen Arivazhagan | Colin Cherry | Wolfgang Macherey | Chung-Cheng Chiu | Semih Yavuz | Ruoming Pang | Wei Li | Colin Raffel
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Simultaneous machine translation begins to translate each source sentence before the source speaker is finished speaking, with applications to live and streaming scenarios. Simultaneous systems must carefully schedule their reading of the source sentence to balance quality against latency. We present the first simultaneous translation system to learn an adaptive schedule jointly with a neural machine translation (NMT) model that attends over all source tokens read thus far. We do so by introducing Monotonic Infinite Lookback (MILk) attention, which maintains both a hard, monotonic attention head to schedule the reading of the source sentence, and a soft attention head that extends from the monotonic head back to the beginning of the source. We show that MILk’s adaptive schedule allows it to arrive at latency-quality trade-offs that are favorable to those of a recently proposed wait-k strategy for many latency values.