Ryan Rossi


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GPT-4 as an Effective Zero-Shot Evaluator for Scientific Figure Captions
Ting-Yao Hsu | Chieh-Yang Huang | Ryan Rossi | Sungchul Kim | C. Giles | Ting-Hao Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

There is growing interest in systems that generate captions for scientific figures. However, assessing these systems’ output poses a significant challenge. Human evaluation requires academic expertise and is costly, while automatic evaluation depends on often low-quality author-written captions. This paper investigates using large language models (LLMs) as a cost-effective, reference-free method for evaluating figure captions. We first constructed SCICAP-EVAL, a human evaluation dataset that contains human judgments for 3,600 scientific figure captions, both original and machine-made, for 600 arXiv figures. We then prompted LLMs like GPT-4 and GPT-3 to score (1-6) each caption based on its potential to aid reader understanding, given relevant context such as figure-mentioning paragraphs. Results show that GPT-4, used as a zero-shot evaluator, outperformed all other models and even surpassed assessments made by computer science undergraduates, achieving a Kendall correlation score of 0.401 with Ph.D. students’ rankings.

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Summaries as Captions: Generating Figure Captions for Scientific Documents with Automated Text Summarization
Chieh-Yang Huang | Ting-Yao Hsu | Ryan Rossi | Ani Nenkova | Sungchul Kim | Gromit Yeuk-Yin Chan | Eunyee Koh | C Lee Giles | Ting-Hao Huang
Proceedings of the 16th International Natural Language Generation Conference

Good figure captions help paper readers understand complex scientific figures. Unfortunately, even published papers often have poorly written captions. Automatic caption generation could aid paper writers by providing good starting captions that can be refined for better quality. Prior work often treated figure caption generation as a vision-to-language task. In this paper, we show that it can be more effectively tackled as a text summarization task in scientific documents. We fine-tuned PEGASUS, a pre-trained abstractive summarization model, to specifically summarize figure-referencing paragraphs (e.g., “Figure 3 shows...”) into figure captions. Experiments on large-scale arXiv figures show that our method outperforms prior vision methods in both automatic and human evaluations. We further conducted an in-depth investigation focused on two key challenges: (i) the common presence of low-quality author-written captions and (ii) the lack of clear standards for good captions. Our code and data are available at: https://github.com/Crowd-AI-Lab/Generating-Figure-Captions-as-a-Text-Summarization-Task.

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Learning the Visualness of Text Using Large Vision-Language Models
Gaurav Verma | Ryan Rossi | Christopher Tensmeyer | Jiuxiang Gu | Ani Nenkova
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Visual text evokes an image in a person’s mind, while non-visual text fails to do so. A method to automatically detect visualness in text will enable text-to-image retrieval and generation models to augment text with relevant images. This is particularly challenging with long-form text as text-to-image generation and retrieval models are often triggered for text that is designed to be explicitly visual in nature, whereas long-form text could contain many non-visual sentences. To this end, we curate a dataset of 3,620 English sentences and their visualness scores provided by multiple human annotators. We also propose a fine-tuning strategy that adapts large vision-language models like CLIP by modifying the model’s contrastive learning objective to map text identified as non-visual to a common NULL image while matching visual text to their corresponding images in the document. We evaluate the proposed approach on its ability to (i) classify visual and non-visual text accurately, and (ii) attend over words that are identified as visual in psycholinguistic studies. Empirical evaluation indicates that our approach performs better than several heuristics and baseline models for the proposed task. Furthermore, to highlight the importance of modeling the visualness of text, we conduct qualitative analyses of text-to-image generation systems like DALL-E.

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Okapi: Instruction-tuned Large Language Models in Multiple Languages with Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback
Viet Lai | Chien Nguyen | Nghia Ngo | Thuat Nguyen | Franck Dernoncourt | Ryan Rossi | Thien Nguyen
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

A key technology for large language models (LLMs) involves instruction tuning that helps align the models’ responses with human expectations to realize impressive learning abilities. Two major approaches for instruction tuning characterize supervised fine-tuning (SFT) and reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF), which are applied to produce the best commercial LLMs. To improve the accessibility of LLMs, various instruction-tuned open-source LLMs have also been introduced recently. However, existing open-source LLMs have only been instruction-tuned for English and a few popular languages, thus hindering their accessibility to many other languages in the world. In addition, SFT has been used as the only approach to instruction-tune open-source LLMs for multiple languages. This has left a significant gap for fine-tuned LLMs based on RLHF in diverse languages and raised important questions on how RLHF can boost the performance of multilingual instruction tuning. To overcome this issue, we present Okapi, the first system with instruction-tuned LLMs based on RLHF for multiple languages. Okapi introduces instruction and response-ranked data in 26 diverse languages to facilitate the experiments and development of future multilingual LLM research. We also present benchmark datasets to enable the evaluation of generative LLMs in multiple languages. Our experiments demonstrate the advantages of RLHF for multilingual instruction over SFT for different base models and datasets. Our framework with created resources, fine-tuned LLMs, interaction scripts are released at https://github.com/nlp-uoregon/Okapi. A demo video to show our framework can also be found at: https://youtu.be/QFV2fkPwvi0.


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Robustness of Fusion-based Multimodal Classifiers to Cross-Modal Content Dilutions
Gaurav Verma | Vishwa Vinay | Ryan Rossi | Srijan Kumar
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

As multimodal learning finds applications in a wide variety of high-stakes societal tasks, investigating their robustness becomes important. Existing work has focused on understanding the robustness of vision-and-language models to imperceptible variations on benchmark tasks. In this work, we investigate the robustness of multimodal classifiers to cross-modal dilutions – a plausible variation. We develop a model that, given a multimodal (image + text) input, generates additional dilution text that (a) maintains relevance and topical coherence with the image and existing text, and (b) when added to the original text, leads to misclassification of the multimodal input. Via experiments on Crisis Humanitarianism and Sentiment Detection tasks, we find that the performance of task-specific fusion-based multimodal classifiers drops by 23.3% and 22.5%, respectively, in the presence of dilutions generated by our model. Metric-based comparisons with several baselines and human evaluations indicate that our dilutions show higher relevance and topical coherence, while simultaneously being more effective at demonstrating the brittleness of the multimodal classifiers. Our work aims to highlight and encourage further research on the robustness of deep multimodal models to realistic variations, especially in human-facing societal applications.


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Edge: Enriching Knowledge Graph Embeddings with External Text
Saed Rezayi | Handong Zhao | Sungchul Kim | Ryan Rossi | Nedim Lipka | Sheng Li
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Knowledge graphs suffer from sparsity which degrades the quality of representations generated by various methods. While there is an abundance of textual information throughout the web and many existing knowledge bases, aligning information across these diverse data sources remains a challenge in the literature. Previous work has partially addressed this issue by enriching knowledge graph entities based on “hard” co-occurrence of words present in the entities of the knowledge graphs and external text, while we achieve “soft” augmentation by proposing a knowledge graph enrichment and embedding framework named Edge. Given an original knowledge graph, we first generate a rich but noisy augmented graph using external texts in semantic and structural level. To distill the relevant knowledge and suppress the introduced noise, we design a graph alignment term in a shared embedding space between the original graph and augmented graph. To enhance the embedding learning on the augmented graph, we further regularize the locality relationship of target entity based on negative sampling. Experimental results on four benchmark datasets demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of Edge in link prediction and node classification.

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Learning Contextualized Knowledge Structures for Commonsense Reasoning
Jun Yan | Mrigank Raman | Aaron Chan | Tianyu Zhang | Ryan Rossi | Handong Zhao | Sungchul Kim | Nedim Lipka | Xiang Ren
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021