Ryo Takahashi


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Are Prompt-based Models Clueless?
Pride Kavumba | Ryo Takahashi | Yusuke Oda
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Finetuning large pre-trained language models with a task-specific head has advanced the state-of-the-art on many natural language understanding benchmarks. However, models with a task-specific head require a lot of training data, making them susceptible to learning and exploiting dataset-specific superficial cues that do not generalize to other datasets.Prompting has reduced the data requirement by reusing the language model head and formatting the task input to match the pre-training objective. Therefore, it is expected that few-shot prompt-based models do not exploit superficial cues.This paper presents an empirical examination of whether few-shot prompt-based models also exploit superficial cues.Analyzing few-shot prompt-based models on MNLI, SNLI, HANS, and COPA has revealed that prompt-based models also exploit superficial cues. While the models perform well on instances with superficial cues, they often underperform or only marginally outperform random accuracy on instances without superficial cues.


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Two Training Strategies for Improving Relation Extraction over Universal Graph
Qin Dai | Naoya Inoue | Ryo Takahashi | Kentaro Inui
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

This paper explores how the Distantly Supervised Relation Extraction (DS-RE) can benefit from the use of a Universal Graph (UG), the combination of a Knowledge Graph (KG) and a large-scale text collection. A straightforward extension of a current state-of-the-art neural model for DS-RE with a UG may lead to degradation in performance. We first report that this degradation is associated with the difficulty in learning a UG and then propose two training strategies: (1) Path Type Adaptive Pretraining, which sequentially trains the model with different types of UG paths so as to prevent the reliance on a single type of UG path; and (2) Complexity Ranking Guided Attention mechanism, which restricts the attention span according to the complexity of a UG path so as to force the model to extract features not only from simple UG paths but also from complex ones. Experimental results on both biomedical and NYT10 datasets prove the robustness of our methods and achieve a new state-of-the-art result on the NYT10 dataset. The code and datasets used in this paper are available at https://github.com/baodaiqin/UGDSRE.


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Modeling Event Salience in Narratives via Barthes’ Cardinal Functions
Takaki Otake | Sho Yokoi | Naoya Inoue | Ryo Takahashi | Tatsuki Kuribayashi | Kentaro Inui
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Events in a narrative differ in salience: some are more important to the story than others. Estimating event salience is useful for tasks such as story generation, and as a tool for text analysis in narratology and folkloristics. To compute event salience without any annotations, we adopt Barthes’ definition of event salience and propose several unsupervised methods that require only a pre-trained language model. Evaluating the proposed methods on folktales with event salience annotation, we show that the proposed methods outperform baseline methods and find fine-tuning a language model on narrative texts is a key factor in improving the proposed methods.

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An Empirical Study of Contextual Data Augmentation for Japanese Zero Anaphora Resolution
Ryuto Konno | Yuichiroh Matsubayashi | Shun Kiyono | Hiroki Ouchi | Ryo Takahashi | Kentaro Inui
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

One critical issue of zero anaphora resolution (ZAR) is the scarcity of labeled data. This study explores how effectively this problem can be alleviated by data augmentation. We adopt a state-of-the-art data augmentation method, called the contextual data augmentation (CDA), that generates labeled training instances using a pretrained language model. The CDA has been reported to work well for several other natural language processing tasks, including text classification and machine translation. This study addresses two underexplored issues on CDA, that is, how to reduce the computational cost of data augmentation and how to ensure the quality of the generated data. We also propose two methods to adapt CDA to ZAR: [MASK]-based augmentation and linguistically-controlled masking. Consequently, the experimental results on Japanese ZAR show that our methods contribute to both the accuracy gainand the computation cost reduction. Our closer analysis reveals that the proposed method can improve the quality of the augmented training data when compared to the conventional CDA.

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Word Rotator’s Distance
Sho Yokoi | Ryo Takahashi | Reina Akama | Jun Suzuki | Kentaro Inui
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

One key principle for assessing textual similarity is measuring the degree of semantic overlap between texts by considering the word alignment. Such alignment-based approaches are both intuitive and interpretable; however, they are empirically inferior to the simple cosine similarity between general-purpose sentence vectors. We focus on the fact that the norm of word vectors is a good proxy for word importance, and the angle of them is a good proxy for word similarity. However, alignment-based approaches do not distinguish the norm and direction, whereas sentence-vector approaches automatically use the norm as the word importance. Accordingly, we propose decoupling word vectors into their norm and direction then computing the alignment-based similarity with the help of earth mover’s distance (optimal transport), which we refer to as word rotator’s distance. Furthermore, we demonstrate how to grow the norm and direction of word vectors (vector converter); this is a new systematic approach derived from the sentence-vector estimation methods, which can significantly improve the performance of the proposed method. On several STS benchmarks, the proposed methods outperform not only alignment-based approaches but also strong baselines. The source code is avaliable at https://github.com/eumesy/wrd


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Distantly Supervised Biomedical Knowledge Acquisition via Knowledge Graph Based Attention
Qin Dai | Naoya Inoue | Paul Reisert | Ryo Takahashi | Kentaro Inui
Proceedings of the Workshop on Extracting Structured Knowledge from Scientific Publications

The increased demand for structured scientific knowledge has attracted considerable attention in extracting scientific relation from the ever growing scientific publications. Distant supervision is widely applied approach to automatically generate large amounts of labelled data with low manual annotation cost. However, distant supervision inevitably accompanies the wrong labelling problem, which will negatively affect the performance of Relation Extraction (RE). To address this issue, (Han et al., 2018) proposes a novel framework for jointly training both RE model and Knowledge Graph Completion (KGC) model to extract structured knowledge from non-scientific dataset. In this work, we firstly investigate the feasibility of this framework on scientific dataset, specifically on biomedical dataset. Secondly, to achieve better performance on the biomedical dataset, we extend the framework with other competitive KGC models. Moreover, we proposed a new end-to-end KGC model to extend the framework. Experimental results not only show the feasibility of the framework on the biomedical dataset, but also indicate the effectiveness of our extensions, because our extended model achieves significant and consistent improvements on distant supervised RE as compared with baselines.


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Interpretable and Compositional Relation Learning by Joint Training with an Autoencoder
Ryo Takahashi | Ran Tian | Kentaro Inui
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Embedding models for entities and relations are extremely useful for recovering missing facts in a knowledge base. Intuitively, a relation can be modeled by a matrix mapping entity vectors. However, relations reside on low dimension sub-manifolds in the parameter space of arbitrary matrices – for one reason, composition of two relations M1, M2 may match a third M3 (e.g. composition of relations currency_of_country and country_of_film usually matches currency_of_film_budget), which imposes compositional constraints to be satisfied by the parameters (i.e. M1*M2=M3). In this paper we investigate a dimension reduction technique by training relations jointly with an autoencoder, which is expected to better capture compositional constraints. We achieve state-of-the-art on Knowledge Base Completion tasks with strongly improved Mean Rank, and show that joint training with an autoencoder leads to interpretable sparse codings of relations, helps discovering compositional constraints and benefits from compositional training. Our source code is released at github.com/tianran/glimvec.