Sai Ashish Somayajula


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Bi-level Finetuning with Task-dependent Similarity Structure for Low-resource Training
Sai Ashish Somayajula | Lifeng Jin | Linfeng Song | Haitao Mi | Dong Yu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Training a large language model in low-resource settings is challenging since they are susceptible to overfitting with limited generalization abilities. Previous work addresses this issue by approaches such as tunable parameters reduction or data augmentation. However, they either limit the trained models’ expressiveness or rely on task-independent knowledge. In this paper, we propose the Bi-level Finetuning with Task-dependent Similarity Structure framework where all parameters, including the embeddings for unseen tokens, are finetuned with task-dependent information from the training data only. In this framework, a task-dependent similarity structure is learned in a data-driven fashion, which in turn is used to compose soft embeddings from conventional embeddings to be used in training to update all parameters. In order to learn the similarity structure and model parameters, we propose a bi-level optimization algorithm with two stages—search and finetune—to ensure successful learning. Results of experiments on several classification datasets in low-resource scenarios demonstrate that models trained with our method outperform strong baselines. Ablation experiments further support the effectiveness of different components in our framework. Code is available at


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A Multi-Level Optimization Framework for End-to-End Text Augmentation
Sai Ashish Somayajula | Linfeng Song | Pengtao Xie
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 10

Text augmentation is an effective technique in alleviating overfitting in NLP tasks. In existing methods, text augmentation and downstream tasks are mostly performed separately. As a result, the augmented texts may not be optimal to train the downstream model. To address this problem, we propose a three-level optimization framework to perform text augmentation and the downstream task end-to- end. The augmentation model is trained in a way tailored to the downstream task. Our framework consists of three learning stages. A text summarization model is trained to perform data augmentation at the first stage. Each summarization example is associated with a weight to account for its domain difference with the text classification data. At the second stage, we use the model trained at the first stage to perform text augmentation and train a text classification model on the augmented texts. At the third stage, we evaluate the text classification model trained at the second stage and update weights of summarization examples by minimizing the validation loss. These three stages are performed end-to-end. We evaluate our method on several text classification datasets where the results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. Code is available at