Scripts are structured sequences of events together with the participants, which are extracted from the texts. Script event prediction aims to predict the subsequent event given the historical events in the script. Two kinds of information facilitate this task, namely, the event-level information and the script-level information. At the event level, existing studies view an event as a verb with its participants, while neglecting other useful properties, such as the state of the participants. At the script level, most existing studies only consider a single event sequence corresponding to one common protagonist. In this paper, we propose a Transformer-based model, called MCPredictor, which integrates deep event-level and script-level information for script event prediction. At the event level, MCPredictor utilizes the rich information in the text to obtain more comprehensive event semantic representations. At the script-level, it considers multiple event sequences corresponding to different participants of the subsequent event. The experimental results on the widely-used New York Times corpus demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed model.
Temporal Knowledge Graphs (TKGs) have been developed and used in many different areas. Reasoning on TKGs that predicts potential facts (events) in the future brings great challenges to existing models. When facing a prediction task, human beings usually search useful historical information (i.e., clues) in their memories and then reason for future meticulously. Inspired by this mechanism, we propose CluSTeR to predict future facts in a two-stage manner, Clue Searching and Temporal Reasoning, accordingly. Specifically, at the clue searching stage, CluSTeR learns a beam search policy via reinforcement learning (RL) to induce multiple clues from historical facts. At the temporal reasoning stage, it adopts a graph convolution network based sequence method to deduce answers from clues. Experiments on four datasets demonstrate the substantial advantages of CluSTeR compared with the state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, the clues found by CluSTeR further provide interpretability for the results.
Knowledge inference on knowledge graph has attracted extensive attention, which aims to find out connotative valid facts in knowledge graph and is very helpful for improving the performance of many downstream applications. However, researchers have mainly poured attention to knowledge inference on binary facts. The studies on n-ary facts are relatively scarcer, although they are also ubiquitous in the real world. Therefore, this paper addresses knowledge inference on n-ary facts. We represent each n-ary fact as a primary triple coupled with a set of its auxiliary descriptive attribute-value pair(s). We further propose a neural network model, NeuInfer, for knowledge inference on n-ary facts. Besides handling the common task to infer an unknown element in a whole fact, NeuInfer can cope with a new type of task, flexible knowledge inference. It aims to infer an unknown element in a partial fact consisting of the primary triple coupled with any number of its auxiliary description(s). Experimental results demonstrate the remarkable superiority of NeuInfer.
Event coreference resolution aims to classify all event mentions that refer to the same real-world event into the same group, which is necessary to information aggregation and many downstream applications. To resolve event coreference, existing methods usually calculate the similarities between event mentions and between specific kinds of event arguments. However, they fail to accurately identify paraphrase relations between events and may suffer from error propagation while extracting event components (i.e., event mentions and their arguments). Therefore, we propose a new model based on Event-specific Paraphrases and Argument-aware Semantic Embeddings, thus called EPASE, for event coreference resolution. EPASE recognizes deep paraphrase relations in an event-specific context of sentences and can cover event paraphrases of more situations, bringing about a better generalization. Additionally, the embeddings of argument roles are encoded into event embedding without relying on a fixed number and type of arguments, which results in the better scalability of EPASE. Experiments on both within- and cross-document event coreference demonstrate its consistent and significant superiority compared to existing methods.