Samuel Cahyawijaya


2021

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IndoNLG: Benchmark and Resources for Evaluating Indonesian Natural Language Generation
Samuel Cahyawijaya | Genta Indra Winata | Bryan Wilie | Karissa Vincentio | Xiaohong Li | Adhiguna Kuncoro | Sebastian Ruder | Zhi Yuan Lim | Syafri Bahar | Masayu Khodra | Ayu Purwarianti | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Natural language generation (NLG) benchmarks provide an important avenue to measure progress and develop better NLG systems. Unfortunately, the lack of publicly available NLG benchmarks for low-resource languages poses a challenging barrier for building NLG systems that work well for languages with limited amounts of data. Here we introduce IndoNLG, the first benchmark to measure natural language generation (NLG) progress in three low-resource—yet widely spoken—languages of Indonesia: Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese. Altogether, these languages are spoken by more than 100 million native speakers, and hence constitute an important use case of NLG systems today. Concretely, IndoNLG covers six tasks: summarization, question answering, chit-chat, and three different pairs of machine translation (MT) tasks. We collate a clean pretraining corpus of Indonesian, Sundanese, and Javanese datasets, Indo4B-Plus, which is used to pretrain our models: IndoBART and IndoGPT. We show that IndoBART and IndoGPT achieve competitive performance on all tasks—despite using only one-fifth the parameters of a larger multilingual model, mBART-large (Liu et al., 2020). This finding emphasizes the importance of pretraining on closely related, localized languages to achieve more efficient learning and faster inference at very low-resource languages like Javanese and Sundanese.

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Are Multilingual Models Effective in Code-Switching?
Genta Indra Winata | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Zihan Liu | Zhaojiang Lin | Andrea Madotto | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Computational Approaches to Linguistic Code-Switching

Multilingual language models have shown decent performance in multilingual and cross-lingual natural language understanding tasks. However, the power of these multilingual models in code-switching tasks has not been fully explored. In this paper, we study the effectiveness of multilingual language models to understand their capability and adaptability to the mixed-language setting by considering the inference speed, performance, and number of parameters to measure their practicality. We conduct experiments in three language pairs on named entity recognition and part-of-speech tagging and compare them with existing methods, such as using bilingual embeddings and multilingual meta-embeddings. Our findings suggest that pre-trained multilingual models do not necessarily guarantee high-quality representations on code-switching, while using meta-embeddings achieves similar results with significantly fewer parameters.

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Multimodal End-to-End Sparse Model for Emotion Recognition
Wenliang Dai | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Zihan Liu | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Existing works in multimodal affective computing tasks, such as emotion recognition and personality recognition, generally adopt a two-phase pipeline by first extracting feature representations for each single modality with hand crafted algorithms, and then performing end-to-end learning with extracted features. However, the extracted features are fixed and cannot be further fine-tuned on different target tasks, and manually finding feature extracting algorithms does not generalize or scale well to different tasks, which can lead to sub-optimal performance. In this paper, we develop a fully end-to-end model that connects the two phases and optimizes them jointly. In addition, we restructure the current datasets to enable the fully end-to-end training. Furthermore, to reduce the computational overhead brought by the end-to-end model, we introduce a sparse cross-modal attention mechanism for the feature extraction. Experimental results show that our fully end-to-end model significantly surpasses the current state-of-the-art models based on the two-phase pipeline. Moreover, by adding the sparse cross-modal attention, our model can maintain the performance with around half less computation in the feature extraction part of the model.

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ERICA: An Empathetic Android Companion for Covid-19 Quarantine
Etsuko Ishii | Genta Indra Winata | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Divesh Lala | Tatsuya Kawahara | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue

Over the past year, research in various domains, including Natural Language Processing (NLP), has been accelerated to fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, yet such research has just started on dialogue systems. In this paper, we introduce an end-to-end dialogue system which aims to ease the isolation of people under self-quarantine. We conduct a control simulation experiment to assess the effects of the user interface: a web-based virtual agent, Nora vs. the android ERICA via a video call. The experimental results show that the android can offer a more valuable user experience by giving the impression of being more empathetic and engaging in the conversation due to its nonverbal information, such as facial expressions and body gestures.

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XPersona: Evaluating Multilingual Personalized Chatbot
Zhaojiang Lin | Zihan Liu | Genta Indra Winata | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Andrea Madotto | Yejin Bang | Etsuko Ishii | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Conversational AI

Personalized dialogue systems are an essential step toward better human-machine interaction. Existing personalized dialogue agents rely on properly designed conversational datasets, which are mostly monolingual (e.g., English), which greatly limits the usage of conversational agents in other languages. In this paper, we propose a multi-lingual extension of Persona-Chat, namely XPersona. Our dataset includes persona conversations in six different languages other than English for evaluating multilingual personalized agents. We experiment with both multilingual and cross-lingual trained baselines and evaluate them against monolingual and translation-pipeline models using both automatic and human evaluation. Experimental results show that the multilingual trained models outperform the translation pipeline and that they are on par with the monolingual models, with the advantage of having a single model across multiple languages. On the other hand, the state-of-the-art cross-lingual trained models achieve inferior performance to the other models, showing that cross-lingual conversation modeling is a challenging task. We hope that our dataset and baselines will accelerate research in multilingual dialogue systems.

2020

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Meta-Transfer Learning for Code-Switched Speech Recognition
Genta Indra Winata | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Zhaojiang Lin | Zihan Liu | Peng Xu | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

An increasing number of people in the world today speak a mixed-language as a result of being multilingual. However, building a speech recognition system for code-switching remains difficult due to the availability of limited resources and the expense and significant effort required to collect mixed-language data. We therefore propose a new learning method, meta-transfer learning, to transfer learn on a code-switched speech recognition system in a low-resource setting by judiciously extracting information from high-resource monolingual datasets. Our model learns to recognize individual languages, and transfer them so as to better recognize mixed-language speech by conditioning the optimization on the code-switching data. Based on experimental results, our model outperforms existing baselines on speech recognition and language modeling tasks, and is faster to converge.

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IndoNLU: Benchmark and Resources for Evaluating Indonesian Natural Language Understanding
Bryan Wilie | Karissa Vincentio | Genta Indra Winata | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Xiaohong Li | Zhi Yuan Lim | Sidik Soleman | Rahmad Mahendra | Pascale Fung | Syafri Bahar | Ayu Purwarianti
Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 10th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

Although Indonesian is known to be the fourth most frequently used language over the internet, the research progress on this language in natural language processing (NLP) is slow-moving due to a lack of available resources. In response, we introduce the first-ever vast resource for training, evaluation, and benchmarking on Indonesian natural language understanding (IndoNLU) tasks. IndoNLU includes twelve tasks, ranging from single sentence classification to pair-sentences sequence labeling with different levels of complexity. The datasets for the tasks lie in different domains and styles to ensure task diversity. We also provide a set of Indonesian pre-trained models (IndoBERT) trained from a large and clean Indonesian dataset (Indo4B) collected from publicly available sources such as social media texts, blogs, news, and websites. We release baseline models for all twelve tasks, as well as the framework for benchmark evaluation, thus enabling everyone to benchmark their system performances.

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Learning Knowledge Bases with Parameters for Task-Oriented Dialogue Systems
Andrea Madotto | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Genta Indra Winata | Yan Xu | Zihan Liu | Zhaojiang Lin | Pascale Fung
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Task-oriented dialogue systems are either modularized with separate dialogue state tracking (DST) and management steps or end-to-end trainable. In either case, the knowledge base (KB) plays an essential role in fulfilling user requests. Modularized systems rely on DST to interact with the KB, which is expensive in terms of annotation and inference time. End-to-end systems, instead, use the KB directly as input, but they cannot scale when the KB is larger than a few hundred entries. In this paper, we propose a method to embed the KB, of any size, directly into the model parameters. The resulting model does not require any DST or template responses, nor the KB as input, and it can dynamically update its KB via fine-tuning. We evaluate our solution in five task-oriented dialogue datasets with small, medium, and large KB size. Our experiments show that end-to-end models can effectively embed knowledge bases in their parameters and achieve competitive performance in all evaluated datasets.