Sandipan Sikdar


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SensePOLAR: Word sense aware interpretability for pre-trained contextual word embeddings
Jan Engler | Sandipan Sikdar | Marlene Lutz | Markus Strohmaier
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Adding interpretability to word embeddings represents an area of active research in textrepresentation. Recent work has explored the potential of embedding words via so-called polardimensions (e.g. good vs. bad, correct vs. wrong). Examples of such recent approachesinclude SemAxis, POLAR, FrameAxis, and BiImp. Although these approaches provide interpretabledimensions for words, they have not been designed to deal with polysemy, i.e. they can not easily distinguish between different senses of words. To address this limitation, we present SensePOLAR, an extension of the original POLAR framework that enables wordsense aware interpretability for pre-trained contextual word embeddings. The resulting interpretable word embeddings achieve a level ofperformance that is comparable to original contextual word embeddings across a variety ofnatural language processing tasks including the GLUE and SQuAD benchmarks. Our workremoves a fundamental limitation of existing approaches by offering users sense aware interpretationsfor contextual word embeddings.

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Interpreting Emoji with Emoji
Jens Reelfs | Timon Mohaupt | Sandipan Sikdar | Markus Strohmaier | Oliver Hohlfeld
Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Emoji Understanding and Applications in Social Media

We study the extent to which emoji can be used to add interpretability to embeddings of text and emoji. To do so, we extend the POLAR-framework that transforms word embeddings to interpretable counterparts and apply it to word-emoji embeddings trained on four years of messaging data from the Jodel social network. We devise a crowdsourced human judgement experiment to study six usecases, evaluating against words only, what role emoji can play in adding interpretability to word embeddings. That is, we use a revised POLAR approach interpreting words and emoji with words, emoji or both according to human judgement. We find statistically significant trends demonstrating that emoji can be used to interpret other emoji very well.


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Integrated Directional Gradients: Feature Interaction Attribution for Neural NLP Models
Sandipan Sikdar | Parantapa Bhattacharya | Kieran Heese
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In this paper, we introduce Integrated Directional Gradients (IDG), a method for attributing importance scores to groups of features, indicating their relevance to the output of a neural network model for a given input. The success of Deep Neural Networks has been attributed to their ability to capture higher level feature interactions. Hence, in the last few years capturing the importance of these feature interactions has received increased prominence in ML interpretability literature. In this paper, we formally define the feature group attribution problem and outline a set of axioms that any intuitive feature group attribution method should satisfy. Earlier, cooperative game theory inspired axiomatic methods only borrowed axioms from solution concepts (such as Shapley value) for individual feature attributions and introduced their own extensions to model interactions. In contrast, our formulation is inspired by axioms satisfied by characteristic functions as well as solution concepts in cooperative game theory literature. We believe that characteristic functions are much better suited to model importance of groups compared to just solution concepts. We demonstrate that our proposed method, IDG, satisfies all the axioms. Using IDG we analyze two state-of-the-art text classifiers on three benchmark datasets for sentiment analysis. Our experiments show that IDG is able to effectively capture semantic interactions in linguistic models via negations and conjunctions.


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StRE: Self Attentive Edit Quality Prediction in Wikipedia
Soumya Sarkar | Bhanu Prakash Reddy | Sandipan Sikdar | Animesh Mukherjee
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Wikipedia can easily be justified as a behemoth, considering the sheer volume of content that is added or removed every minute to its several projects. This creates an immense scope, in the field of natural language processing toward developing automated tools for content moderation and review. In this paper we propose Self Attentive Revision Encoder (StRE) which leverages orthographic similarity of lexical units toward predicting the quality of new edits. In contrast to existing propositions which primarily employ features like page reputation, editor activity or rule based heuristics, we utilize the textual content of the edits which, we believe contains superior signatures of their quality. More specifically, we deploy deep encoders to generate representations of the edits from its text content, which we then leverage to infer quality. We further contribute a novel dataset containing ∼ 21M revisions across 32K Wikipedia pages and demonstrate that StRE outperforms existing methods by a significant margin – at least 17% and at most 103%. Our pre-trained model achieves such result after retraining on a set as small as 20% of the edits in a wikipage. This, to the best of our knowledge, is also the first attempt towards employing deep language models to the enormous domain of automated content moderation and review in Wikipedia.