Sandra Williams


2014

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Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Predicting and Improving Text Readability for Target Reader Populations (PITR)
Sandra Williams | Advaith Siddharthan | Ani Nenkova
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Predicting and Improving Text Readability for Target Reader Populations (PITR)

2013

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A System for the Simplification of Numerical Expressions at Different Levels of Understandability
Susana Bautista | Raquel Hervás | Pablo Gervás | Richard Power | Sandra Williams
Proceedings of the Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Improving Textual Accessibility

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Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Predicting and Improving Text Readability for Target Reader Populations
Sandra Williams | Advaith Siddharthan | Ani Nenkova
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Predicting and Improving Text Readability for Target Reader Populations

2012

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Planning Accessible Explanations for Entailments in OWL Ontologies
Tu Anh T. Nguyen | Richard Power | Paul Piwek | Sandra Williams
INLG 2012 Proceedings of the Seventh International Natural Language Generation Conference

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Proceedings of the First Workshop on Predicting and Improving Text Readability for target reader populations
Sandra Williams | Advaith Siddharthan | Ani Nenkova
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Predicting and Improving Text Readability for target reader populations

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Generating Numerical Approximations
Richard Power | Sandra Williams
Computational Linguistics, Volume 38, Issue 1 - March 2012

2011

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Experimental Identification of the Use of Hedges in the Simplification of Numerical Expressions
Susana Bautista | Raquel Hervás | Pablo Gervás | Richard Power | Sandra Williams
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Speech and Language Processing for Assistive Technologies

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Levels of organisation in ontology verbalisation
Sandra Williams | Allan Third | Richard Power
Proceedings of the 13th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation

2010

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A Fact-aligned Corpus of Numerical Expressions
Sandra Williams | Richard Power
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

We describe a corpus of numerical expressions, developed as part of the NUMGEN project. The corpus contains newspaper articles and scientific papers in which exactly the same numerical facts are presented many times (both within and across texts). Some annotations of numerical facts are original: for example, numbers are automatically classified as round or non-round by an algorithm derived from Jansen and Pollmann (2001); also, numerical hedges such as ‘about’ or ‘a little under’ are marked up and classified semantically using arithmetical relations. Through explicit alignment of phrases describing the same fact, the corpus can support research on the influence of various contextual factors (e.g., document position, intended readership) on the way in which numerical facts are expressed. As an example we present results from an investigation showing that when a fact is mentioned more than once in a text, there is a clear tendency for precision to increase from first to subsequent mentions, and for mathematical level either to remain constant or to increase.

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Grouping Axioms for More Coherent Ontology Descriptions
Sandra Williams | Richard Power
Proceedings of the 6th International Natural Language Generation Conference

2009

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Precision and Mathematical Form in First and Subsequent Mentions of Numerical Facts and their Relation to Document Structure
Sandra Williams | Richard Power
Proceedings of the 12th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (ENLG 2009)

2008

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Deriving Rhetorical Complexity Data from the RST-DT Corpus
Sandra Williams | Richard Power
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

This paper describes a study of the levels at which different rhetorical relations occur in rhetorical structure trees. In a previous empirical study (Williams and Reiter, 2003) of the RST-DT (Rhetorical Structure Theory Discourse Treebank) Corpus (Carlson et al., 2003), we noticed that certain rhetorical relations tended to occur more frequently at higher levels in a rhetorical structure tree, whereas others seemed to occur more often at lower levels. The present study takes a closer look at the data, partly to test this observation, and partly to investigate related issues such as the relative complexity of satellite and nucleus for each type of relation. One practical application of this investigation would be to guide discourse planning in Natural Language Generation (NLG), so that it reflects more accurately the structures found in documents written by human authors. We present our preliminary findings and discuss their relevance for discourse planning.

2007

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Generating monologue and dialogue to present personalised medical information to patients
Sandra Williams | Paul Piwek | Richard Power
Proceedings of the Eleventh European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (ENLG 07)

2005

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Generating Readable Texts for Readers with Low Basic Skills
Sandra Williams | Ehud Reiter
Proceedings of the Tenth European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (ENLG-05)

2003

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Language choice models for microplanning and readability
Sandra Williams
Proceedings of the HLT-NAACL 2003 Student Research Workshop

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Acquiring and Using Limited User Models in NLG
Ehud Reiter | Somayajulu Sripada | Sandra Williams
Proceedings of the 9th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (ENLG-2003) at EACL 2003

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Experiments with discourse-level choices and readability
Sandra Williams | Ehud Reiter | Liesl Osman
Proceedings of the 9th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (ENLG-2003) at EACL 2003