Saptarshi Ghosh


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Nonet at SemEval-2023 Task 6: Methodologies for Legal Evaluation
Shubham Kumar Nigam | Aniket Deroy | Noel Shallum | Ayush Kumar Mishra | Anup Roy | Shubham Kumar Mishra | Arnab Bhattacharya | Saptarshi Ghosh | Kripabandhu Ghosh
Proceedings of the 17th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2023)

This paper describes our submission to the SemEval-2023 for Task 6 on LegalEval: Understanding Legal Texts. Our submission concentrated on three subtasks: Legal Named Entity Recognition (L-NER) for Task-B, Legal Judgment Prediction (LJP) for Task-C1, and Court Judgment Prediction with Explanation (CJPE) for Task-C2. We conducted various experiments on these subtasks and presented the results in detail, including data statistics and methodology. It is worth noting that legal tasks, such as those tackled in this research, have been gaining importance due to the increasing need to automate legal analysis and support. Our team obtained competitive rankings of 15th, 11th, and 1st in Task-B, Task-C1, and Task-C2, respectively, as reported on the leaderboard.

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MILDSum: A Novel Benchmark Dataset for Multilingual Summarization of Indian Legal Case Judgments
Debtanu Datta | Shubham Soni | Rajdeep Mukherjee | Saptarshi Ghosh
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Automatic summarization of legal case judgments is a practically important problem that has attracted substantial research efforts in many countries. In the context of the Indian judiciary, there is an additional complexity – Indian legal case judgments are mostly written in complex English, but a significant portion of India’s population lacks command of the English language. Hence, it is crucial to summarize the legal documents in Indian languages to ensure equitable access to justice. While prior research primarily focuses on summarizing legal case judgments in their source languages, this study presents a pioneering effort toward cross-lingual summarization of English legal documents into Hindi, the most frequently spoken Indian language. We construct the first high-quality legal corpus comprising of 3,122 case judgments from prominent Indian courts in English, along with their summaries in both English and Hindi, drafted by legal practitioners. We benchmark the performance of several diverse summarization approaches on our corpus and demonstrate the need for further research in cross-lingual summarization in the legal domain.


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Legal Case Document Summarization: Extractive and Abstractive Methods and their Evaluation
Abhay Shukla | Paheli Bhattacharya | Soham Poddar | Rajdeep Mukherjee | Kripabandhu Ghosh | Pawan Goyal | Saptarshi Ghosh
Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 12th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Summarization of legal case judgement documents is a challenging problem in Legal NLP. However, not much analyses exist on how different families of summarization models (e.g., extractive vs. abstractive) perform when applied to legal case documents. This question is particularly important since many recent transformer-based abstractive summarization models have restrictions on the number of input tokens, and legal documents are known to be very long. Also, it is an open question on how best to evaluate legal case document summarization systems. In this paper, we carry out extensive experiments with several extractive and abstractive summarization methods (both supervised and unsupervised) over three legal summarization datasets that we have developed. Our analyses, that includes evaluation by law practitioners, lead to several interesting insights on legal summarization in specific and long document summarization in general.

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ECTSum: A New Benchmark Dataset For Bullet Point Summarization of Long Earnings Call Transcripts
Rajdeep Mukherjee | Abhinav Bohra | Akash Banerjee | Soumya Sharma | Manjunath Hegde | Afreen Shaikh | Shivani Shrivastava | Koustuv Dasgupta | Niloy Ganguly | Saptarshi Ghosh | Pawan Goyal
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Despite tremendous progress in automatic summarization, state-of-the-art methods are predominantly trained to excel in summarizing short newswire articles, or documents with strong layout biases such as scientific articles or government reports. Efficient techniques to summarize financial documents, discussing facts and figures, have largely been unexplored, majorly due to the unavailability of suitable datasets. In this work, we present ECTSum, a new dataset with transcripts of earnings calls (ECTs), hosted by publicly traded companies, as documents, and experts-written short telegram-style bullet point summaries derived from corresponding Reuters articles. ECTs are long unstructured documents without any prescribed length limit or format. We benchmark our dataset with state-of-the-art summarization methods across various metrics evaluating the content quality and factual consistency of the generated summaries. Finally, we present a simple yet effective approach, ECT-BPS, to generate a set of bullet points that precisely capture the important facts discussed in the calls.


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NARMADA: Need and Available Resource Managing Assistant for Disasters and Adversities
Kaustubh Hiware | Ritam Dutt | Sayan Sinha | Sohan Patro | Kripa Ghosh | Saptarshi Ghosh
Proceedings of the Eighth International Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media

Although a lot of research has been done on utilising Online Social Media during disasters, there exists no system for a specific task that is critical in a post-disaster scenario – identifying resource-needs and resource-availabilities in the disaster-affected region, coupled with their subsequent matching. To this end, we present NARMADA, a semi-automated platform which leverages the crowd-sourced information from social media posts for assisting post-disaster relief coordination efforts. The system employs Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval techniques for identifying resource-needs and resource-availabilities from microblogs, extracting resources from the posts, and also matching the needs to suitable availabilities. The system is thus capable of facilitating the judicious management of resources during post-disaster relief operations.

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Automatic Charge Identification from Facts: A Few Sentence-Level Charge Annotations is All You Need
Shounak Paul | Pawan Goyal | Saptarshi Ghosh
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Automatic Charge Identification (ACI) is the task of identifying the relevant charges given the facts of a situation and the statutory laws that define these charges, and is a crucial aspect of the judicial process. Existing works focus on learning charge-side representations by modeling relationships between the charges, but not much effort has been made in improving fact-side representations. We observe that only a small fraction of sentences in the facts actually indicates the charges. We show that by using a very small subset (< 3%) of fact descriptions annotated with sentence-level charges, we can achieve an improvement across a range of different ACI models, as compared to modeling just the main document-level task on a much larger dataset. Additionally, we propose a novel model that utilizes sentence-level charge labels as an auxiliary task, coupled with the main task of document-level charge identification in a multi-task learning framework. The proposed model comprehensively outperforms a large number of recent baselines for ACI. The improvement in performance is particularly noticeable for the rare charges which are known to be especially challenging to identify.