Representing text in tables is essential for many business intelligence tasks such as semantic retrieval, data exploration and visualization, and question answering. Existing methods that leverage pretrained Transformer encoders range from a simple construction of pseudo-sentences by concatenating text across rows or columns to complex parameter-intensive models that encode table structure and require additional pretraining. In this work, we introduce a novel encoding strategy for Transformer encoders that preserves the critical property of permutation invariance across rows or columns. Unlike existing state-of-the-art methods for Table Understanding, our proposed approach does not require any additional pretraining and still substantially outperforms existing methods in almost all instances. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach on three table interpretation tasks: column type annotation, relation extraction, and entity linking through extensive experiments on existing tabular datasets.
Noun phrases and Relation phrases in open knowledge graphs are not canonicalized, leading to an explosion of redundant and ambiguous subject-relation-object triples. Existing approaches to solve this problem take a two-step approach. First, they generate embedding representations for both noun and relation phrases, then a clustering algorithm is used to group them using the embeddings as features. In this work, we propose Canonicalizing Using Variational AutoEncoders and Side Information (CUVA), a joint model to learn both embeddings and cluster assignments in an end-to-end approach, which leads to a better vector representation for the noun and relation phrases. Our evaluation over multiple benchmarks shows that CUVA outperforms the existing state-of-the-art approaches. Moreover, we introduce CanonicNell, a novel dataset to evaluate entity canonicalization systems.
Extracting lexico-semantic relations as graph-structured taxonomies, also known as taxonomy construction, has been beneficial in a variety of NLP applications. Recently Graph Neural Network (GNN) has shown to be powerful in successfully tackling many tasks. However, there has been no attempt to exploit GNN to create taxonomies. In this paper, we propose Graph2Taxo, a GNN-based cross-domain transfer framework for the taxonomy construction task. Our main contribution is to learn the latent features of taxonomy construction from existing domains to guide the structure learning of an unseen domain. We also propose a novel method of directed acyclic graph (DAG) generation for taxonomy construction. Specifically, our proposed Graph2Taxo uses a noisy graph constructed from automatically extracted noisy hyponym hypernym candidate pairs, and a set of taxonomies for some known domains for training. The learned model is then used to generate taxonomy for a new unknown domain given a set of terms for that domain. Experiments on benchmark datasets from science and environment domains show that our approach attains significant improvements correspondingly over the state of the art.
The Knowledge Graph Induction Service (KGIS) is an end-to-end knowledge induction system. One of its main capabilities is to automatically induce taxonomies from input documents using a hybrid approach that takes advantage of linguistic patterns, semantic web and neural networks. KGIS allows the user to semi-automatically curate and expand the induced taxonomy through a component called Smart SpreadSheet by exploiting distributional semantics. In this paper, we describe these taxonomy induction and expansion features of KGIS. A screencast video demonstrating the system is available in https://ibm.box.com/v/emnlp-2019-demo .