Sarthak Garg


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Efficient Inference For Neural Machine Translation
Yi-Te Hsu | Sarthak Garg | Yi-Hsiu Liao | Ilya Chatsviorkin
Proceedings of SustaiNLP: Workshop on Simple and Efficient Natural Language Processing

Large Transformer models have achieved state-of-the-art results in neural machine translation and have become standard in the field. In this work, we look for the optimal combination of known techniques to optimize inference speed without sacrificing translation quality. We conduct an empirical study that stacks various approaches and demonstrates that combination of replacing decoder self-attention with simplified recurrent units, adopting a deep encoder and a shallow decoder architecture and multi-head attention pruning can achieve up to 109% and 84% speedup on CPU and GPU respectively and reduce the number of parameters by 25% while maintaining the same translation quality in terms of BLEU.


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Bilingual Lexicon Induction with Semi-supervision in Non-Isometric Embedding Spaces
Barun Patra | Joel Ruben Antony Moniz | Sarthak Garg | Matthew R. Gormley | Graham Neubig
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Recent work on bilingual lexicon induction (BLI) has frequently depended either on aligned bilingual lexicons or on distribution matching, often with an assumption about the isometry of the two spaces. We propose a technique to quantitatively estimate this assumption of the isometry between two embedding spaces and empirically show that this assumption weakens as the languages in question become increasingly etymologically distant. We then propose Bilingual Lexicon Induction with Semi-Supervision (BLISS) — a semi-supervised approach that relaxes the isometric assumption while leveraging both limited aligned bilingual lexicons and a larger set of unaligned word embeddings, as well as a novel hubness filtering technique. Our proposed method obtains state of the art results on 15 of 18 language pairs on the MUSE dataset, and does particularly well when the embedding spaces don’t appear to be isometric. In addition, we also show that adding supervision stabilizes the learning procedure, and is effective even with minimal supervision.

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Learning to Relate from Captions and Bounding Boxes
Sarthak Garg | Joel Ruben Antony Moniz | Anshu Aviral | Priyatham Bollimpalli
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In this work, we propose a novel approach that predicts the relationships between various entities in an image in a weakly supervised manner by relying on image captions and object bounding box annotations as the sole source of supervision. Our proposed approach uses a top-down attention mechanism to align entities in captions to objects in the image, and then leverage the syntactic structure of the captions to align the relations. We use these alignments to train a relation classification network, thereby obtaining both grounded captions and dense relationships. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our model on the Visual Genome dataset by achieving a recall@50 of 15% and recall@100 of 25% on the relationships present in the image. We also show that the model successfully predicts relations that are not present in the corresponding captions.

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Jointly Learning to Align and Translate with Transformer Models
Sarthak Garg | Stephan Peitz | Udhyakumar Nallasamy | Matthias Paulik
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

The state of the art in machine translation (MT) is governed by neural approaches, which typically provide superior translation accuracy over statistical approaches. However, on the closely related task of word alignment, traditional statistical word alignment models often remain the go-to solution. In this paper, we present an approach to train a Transformer model to produce both accurate translations and alignments. We extract discrete alignments from the attention probabilities learnt during regular neural machine translation model training and leverage them in a multi-task framework to optimize towards translation and alignment objectives. We demonstrate that our approach produces competitive results compared to GIZA++ trained IBM alignment models without sacrificing translation accuracy and outperforms previous attempts on Transformer model based word alignment. Finally, by incorporating IBM model alignments into our multi-task training, we report significantly better alignment accuracies compared to GIZA++ on three publicly available data sets.

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Empirical Evaluation of Active Learning Techniques for Neural MT
Xiangkai Zeng | Sarthak Garg | Rajen Chatterjee | Udhyakumar Nallasamy | Matthias Paulik
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Deep Learning Approaches for Low-Resource NLP (DeepLo 2019)

Active learning (AL) for machine translation (MT) has been well-studied for the phrase-based MT paradigm. Several AL algorithms for data sampling have been proposed over the years. However, given the rapid advancement in neural methods, these algorithms have not been thoroughly investigated in the context of neural MT (NMT). In this work, we address this missing aspect by conducting a systematic comparison of different AL methods in a simulated AL framework. Our experimental setup to compare different AL methods uses: i) State-of-the-art NMT architecture to achieve realistic results; and ii) the same dataset (WMT’13 English-Spanish) to have fair comparison across different methods. We then demonstrate how recent advancements in unsupervised pre-training and paraphrastic embedding can be used to improve existing AL methods. Finally, we propose a neural extension for an AL sampling method used in the context of phrase-based MT - Round Trip Translation Likelihood (RTTL). RTTL uses a bidirectional translation model to estimate the loss of information during translation and outperforms previous methods.