Sean Papay


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RiQuA: A Corpus of Rich Quotation Annotation for English Literary Text
Sean Papay | Sebastian Padó
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

We introduce RiQuA (RIch QUotation Annotations), a corpus that provides quotations, including their interpersonal structure (speakers and addressees) for English literary text. The corpus comprises 11 works of 19th-century literature that were manually doubly annotated for direct and indirect quotations. For each quotation, its span, speaker, addressee, and cue are identified (if present). This provides a rich view of dialogue structures not available from other available corpora. We detail the process of creating this dataset, discuss the annotation guidelines, and analyze the resulting corpus in terms of inter-annotator agreement and its properties. RiQuA, along with its annotations guidelines and associated scripts, are publicly available for use, modification, and experimentation.

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IMS at SemEval-2020 Task 1: How Low Can You Go? Dimensionality in Lexical Semantic Change Detection
Jens Kaiser | Dominik Schlechtweg | Sean Papay | Sabine Schulte im Walde
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

We present the results of our system for SemEval-2020 Task 1 that exploits a commonly used lexical semantic change detection model based on Skip-Gram with Negative Sampling. Our system focuses on Vector Initialization (VI) alignment, compares VI to the currently top-ranking models for Subtask 2 and demonstrates that these can be outperformed if we optimize VI dimensionality. We demonstrate that differences in performance can largely be attributed to model-specific sources of noise, and we reveal a strong relationship between dimensionality and frequency-induced noise in VI alignment. Our results suggest that lexical semantic change models integrating vector space alignment should pay more attention to the role of the dimensionality parameter.

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Dissecting Span Identification Tasks with Performance Prediction
Sean Papay | Roman Klinger | Sebastian Padó
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Span identification (in short, span ID) tasks such as chunking, NER, or code-switching detection, ask models to identify and classify relevant spans in a text. Despite being a staple of NLP, and sharing a common structure, there is little insight on how these tasks’ properties influence their difficulty, and thus little guidance on what model families work well on span ID tasks, and why. We analyze span ID tasks via performance prediction, estimating how well neural architectures do on different tasks. Our contributions are: (a) we identify key properties of span ID tasks that can inform performance prediction; (b) we carry out a large-scale experiment on English data, building a model to predict performance for unseen span ID tasks that can support architecture choices; (c), we investigate the parameters of the meta model, yielding new insights on how model and task properties interact to affect span ID performance. We find, e.g., that span frequency is especially important for LSTMs, and that CRFs help when spans are infrequent and boundaries non-distinctive.


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Quotation Detection and Classification with a Corpus-Agnostic Model
Sean Papay | Sebastian Padó
Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP 2019)

The detection of quotations (i.e., reported speech, thought, and writing) has established itself as an NLP analysis task. However, state-of-the-art models have been developed on the basis of specific corpora and incorpo- rate a high degree of corpus-specific assumptions and knowledge, which leads to fragmentation. In the spirit of task-agnostic modeling, we present a corpus-agnostic neural model for quotation detection and evaluate it on three corpora that vary in language, text genre, and structural assumptions. The model (a) approaches the state-of-the-art on the corpora when using established feature sets and (b) shows reasonable performance even when us- ing solely word forms, which makes it applicable for non-standard (i.e., historical) corpora.


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Addressing Low-Resource Scenarios with Character-aware Embeddings
Sean Papay | Sebastian Padó | Ngoc Thang Vu
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Subword/Character LEvel Models

Most modern approaches to computing word embeddings assume the availability of text corpora with billions of words. In this paper, we explore a setup where only corpora with millions of words are available, and many words in any new text are out of vocabulary. This setup is both of practical interests – modeling the situation for specific domains and low-resource languages – and of psycholinguistic interest, since it corresponds much more closely to the actual experiences and challenges of human language learning and use. We compare standard skip-gram word embeddings with character-based embeddings on word relatedness prediction. Skip-grams excel on large corpora, while character-based embeddings do well on small corpora generally and rare and complex words specifically. The models can be combined easily.

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DERE: A Task and Domain-Independent Slot Filling Framework for Declarative Relation Extraction
Heike Adel | Laura Ana Maria Bostan | Sean Papay | Sebastian Padó | Roman Klinger
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

Most machine learning systems for natural language processing are tailored to specific tasks. As a result, comparability of models across tasks is missing and their applicability to new tasks is limited. This affects end users without machine learning experience as well as model developers. To address these limitations, we present DERE, a novel framework for declarative specification and compilation of template-based information extraction. It uses a generic specification language for the task and for data annotations in terms of spans and frames. This formalism enables the representation of a large variety of natural language processing challenges. The backend can be instantiated by different models, following different paradigms. The clear separation of frame specification and model backend will ease the implementation of new models and the evaluation of different models across different tasks. Furthermore, it simplifies transfer learning, joint learning across tasks and/or domains as well as the assessment of model generalizability. DERE is available as open-source software.