Seiji Maekawa


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Retrieval Helps or Hurts? A Deeper Dive into the Efficacy of Retrieval Augmentation to Language Models
Seiji Maekawa | Hayate Iso | Sairam Gurajada | Nikita Bhutani
Proceedings of the 2024 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (Volume 1: Long Papers)

While large language models (LMs) demonstrate remarkable performance, they encounter challenges in providing accurate responses when queried for information beyond their pre-trained memorization. Although augmenting them with relevant external information can mitigate these issues, failure to consider the necessity of retrieval may adversely affect overall performance. Previous research has primarily focused on examining how entities influence retrieval models and knowledge recall in LMs, leaving other aspects relatively unexplored. In this work, our goal is to offer a more detailed, fact-centric analysis by exploring the effects of combinations of entities and relations. To facilitate this, we construct a new question answering (QA) dataset called WiTQA (Wikipedia Triple Question Answers). This dataset includes questions about entities and relations of various popularity levels, each accompanied by a supporting passage. Our extensive experiments with diverse LMs and retrievers reveal when retrieval does not consistently enhance LMs from the viewpoints of fact-centric popularity. Confirming earlier findings, we observe that larger LMs excel in recalling popular facts. However, they notably encounter difficulty with infrequent entity-relation pairs compared to retrievers. Interestingly, they can effectively retain popular relations of less common entities. We demonstrate the efficacy of our finer-grained metric and insights through an adaptive retrieval system that selectively employs retrieval and recall based on the frequencies of entities and relations in the question.


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Low-resource Interactive Active Labeling for Fine-tuning Language Models
Seiji Maekawa | Dan Zhang | Hannah Kim | Sajjadur Rahman | Estevam Hruschka
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Recently, active learning (AL) methods have been used to effectively fine-tune pre-trained language models for various NLP tasks such as sentiment analysis and document classification. However, given the task of fine-tuning language models, understanding the impact of different aspects on AL methods such as labeling cost, sample acquisition latency, and the diversity of the datasets necessitates a deeper investigation. This paper examines the performance of existing AL methods within a low-resource, interactive labeling setting. We observe that existing methods often underperform in such a setting while exhibiting higher latency and a lack of generalizability. To overcome these challenges, we propose a novel active learning method TYROUGE that employs a hybrid sampling strategy to minimize labeling cost and acquisition latency while providing a framework for adapting to dataset diversity via user guidance. Through our experiments, we observe that compared to SOTA methods, TYROUGE reduces the labeling cost by up to 43% and the acquisition latency by as much as 11X, while achieving comparable accuracy. Finally, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of TYROUGE by exploring the impact of dataset characteristics.