Sejin Paik


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Challenges in Measuring Bias via Open-Ended Language Generation
Afra Feyza Akyürek | Muhammed Yusuf Kocyigit | Sejin Paik | Derry Tanti Wijaya
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Gender Bias in Natural Language Processing (GeBNLP)

Researchers have devised numerous ways to quantify social biases vested in pretrained language models. As some language models are capable of generating coherent completions given a set of textual prompts, several prompting datasets have been proposed to measure biases between social groups—posing language generation as a way of identifying biases. In this opinion paper, we analyze how specific choices of prompt sets, metrics, automatic tools and sampling strategies affect bias results. We find out that the practice of measuring biases through text completion is prone to yielding contradicting results under different experiment settings. We additionally provide recommendations for reporting biases in open-ended language generation for a more complete outlook of biases exhibited by a given language model. Code to reproduce the results is released under

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On Measuring Social Biases in Prompt-Based Multi-Task Learning
Afra Feyza Akyürek | Sejin Paik | Muhammed Kocyigit | Seda Akbiyik | Serife Leman Runyun | Derry Wijaya
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Large language models trained on a mixture of NLP tasks that are converted into a text-to-text format using prompts, can generalize into novel forms of language and handle novel tasks. A large body of work within prompt engineering attempts to understand the effects of input forms and prompts in achieving superior performance. We consider an alternative measure and inquire whether the way in which an input is encoded affects social biases promoted in outputs. In this paper, we study T0, a large-scale multi-task text-to-text language model trained using prompt-based learning. We consider two different forms of semantically equivalent inputs: question-answer format and premise-hypothesis format. We use an existing bias benchmark for the former BBQ and create the first bias benchmark in natural language inference BBNLI with hand-written hypotheses while also converting each benchmark into the other form. The results on two benchmarks suggest that given two different formulations of essentially the same input, T0 conspicuously acts more biased in question answering form, which is seen during training, compared to premise-hypothesis form which is unlike its training examples. Code and data are released under


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OpenFraming: Open-sourced Tool for Computational Framing Analysis of Multilingual Data
Vibhu Bhatia | Vidya Prasad Akavoor | Sejin Paik | Lei Guo | Mona Jalal | Alyssa Smith | David Assefa Tofu | Edward Edberg Halim | Yimeng Sun | Margrit Betke | Prakash Ishwar | Derry Tanti Wijaya
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

When journalists cover a news story, they can cover the story from multiple angles or perspectives. These perspectives are called “frames,” and usage of one frame or another may influence public perception and opinion of the issue at hand. We develop a web-based system for analyzing frames in multilingual text documents. We propose and guide users through a five-step end-to-end computational framing analysis framework grounded in media framing theory in communication research. Users can use the framework to analyze multilingual text data, starting from the exploration of frames in user’s corpora and through review of previous framing literature (step 1-3) to frame classification (step 4) and prediction (step 5). The framework combines unsupervised and supervised machine learning and leverages a state-of-the-art (SoTA) multilingual language model, which can significantly enhance frame prediction performance while requiring a considerably small sample of manual annotations. Through the interactive website, anyone can perform the proposed computational framing analysis, making advanced computational analysis available to researchers without a programming background and bridging the digital divide within the communication research discipline in particular and the academic community in general. The system is available online at, via an API, or through our GitHub page