Seungtaek Choi


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Cross Encoding as Augmentation: Towards Effective Educational Text Classification
Hyun Seung Lee | Seungtaek Choi | Yunsung Lee | Hyeongdon Moon | Shinhyeok Oh | Myeongho Jeong | Hyojun Go | Christian Wallraven
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Text classification in education, usually called auto-tagging, is the automated process of assigning relevant tags to educational content, such as questions and textbooks. However, auto-tagging suffers from a data scarcity problem, which stems from two major challenges: 1) it possesses a large tag space and 2) it is multi-label. Though a retrieval approach is reportedly good at low-resource scenarios, there have been fewer efforts to directly address the data scarcity problem. To mitigate these issues, here we propose a novel retrieval approach CEAA that provides effective learning in educational text classification. Our main contributions are as follows: 1) we leverage transfer learning from question-answering datasets, and 2) we propose a simple but effective data augmentation method introducing cross-encoder style texts to a bi-encoder architecture for more efficient inference. An extensive set of experiments shows that our proposed method is effective in multi-label scenarios and low-resource tags compared to state-of-the-art models.

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Evaluation of Question Generation Needs More References
Shinhyeok Oh | Hyojun Go | Hyeongdon Moon | Yunsung Lee | Myeongho Jeong | Hyun Seung Lee | Seungtaek Choi
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Question generation (QG) is the task of generating a valid and fluent question based on a given context and the target answer. According to various purposes, even given the same context, instructors can ask questions about different concepts, and even the same concept can be written in different ways. However, the evaluation for QG usually depends on single reference-based similarity metrics, such as n-gram-based metric or learned metric, which is not sufficient to fully evaluate the potential of QG methods. To this end, we propose to paraphrase the reference question for a more robust QG evaluation. Using large language models such as GPT-3, we created semantically and syntactically diverse questions, then adopt the simple aggregation of the popular evaluation metrics as the final scores. Through our experiments, we found that using multiple (pseudo) references is more effective for QG evaluation while showing a higher correlation with human evaluations than evaluation with a single reference.

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Retrieval-augmented Video Encoding for Instructional Captioning
Yeonjoon Jung | Minsoo Kim | Seungtaek Choi | Jihyuk Kim | Minji Seo | Seung-won Hwang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Instructional videos make learning knowledge more efficient, by providing a detailed multimodal context of each procedure in instruction.A unique challenge posed by instructional videos is key-object degeneracy, where any single modality fails to sufficiently capture the key objects referred to in the procedure. For machine systems, such degeneracy can disturb the performance of a downstream task such as dense video captioning, leading to the generation of incorrect captions omitting key objects. To repair degeneracy, we propose a retrieval-based framework to augment the model representations in the presence of such key-object degeneracy. We validate the effectiveness and generalizability of our proposed framework over baselines using modalities with key-object degeneracy.

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On Complementarity Objectives for Hybrid Retrieval
Dohyeon Lee | Seung-won Hwang | Kyungjae Lee | Seungtaek Choi | Sunghyun Park
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Dense retrieval has shown promising results in various information retrieval tasks, and hybrid retrieval, combined with the strength of sparse retrieval, has also been actively studied. A key challenge in hybrid retrieval is to make sparse and dense complementary to each other. Existing models have focused on dense models to capture “residual” features neglected in the sparse models. Our key distinction is to show how this notion of residual complementarity is limited, and propose a new objective, denoted as RoC (Ratio of Complementarity), which captures a fuller notion of complementarity. We propose a two-level orthogonality designed to improve RoC, then show that the improved RoC of our model, in turn, improves the performance of hybrid retrieval. Our method outperforms all state-of-the-art methods on three representative IR benchmarks: MSMARCO-Passage, Natural Questions, and TREC Robust04, with statistical significance. Our finding is also consistent in various adversarial settings.


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Debiasing Event Understanding for Visual Commonsense Tasks
Minji Seo | YeonJoon Jung | Seungtaek Choi | Seung-won Hwang | Bei Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

We study event understanding as a critical step towards visual commonsense tasks. Meanwhile, we argue that current object-based event understanding is purely likelihood-based, leading to incorrect event prediction, due to biased correlation between events and objects. We propose to mitigate such biases with do-calculus, proposed in causality research, but overcoming its limited robustness, by an optimized aggregation with association-based prediction.We show the effectiveness of our approach, intrinsically by comparing our generated events with ground-truth event annotation, and extrinsically by downstream commonsense tasks.

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Evaluating the Knowledge Dependency of Questions
Hyeongdon Moon | Yoonseok Yang | Hangyeol Yu | Seunghyun Lee | Myeongho Jeong | Juneyoung Park | Jamin Shin | Minsam Kim | Seungtaek Choi
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The automatic generation of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) has the potential to reduce the time educators spend on student assessment significantly. However, existing evaluation metrics for MCQ generation, such as BLEU, ROUGE, and METEOR, focus on the n-gram based similarity of the generated MCQ to the gold sample in the dataset and disregard their educational value. They fail to evaluate the MCQ’s ability to assess the student’s knowledge of the corresponding target fact. To tackle this issue, we propose a novel automatic evaluation metric, coined Knowledge Dependent Answerability (KDA), which measures the MCQ’s answerability given knowledge of the target fact. Specifically, we first show how to measure KDA based on student responses from a human survey. Then, we propose two automatic evaluation metrics, KDA_disc and KDA_cont, that approximate KDA by leveraging pre-trained language models to imitate students’ problem-solving behavior. Through our human studies, we show that KDA_disc and KDA_soft have strong correlations with both (1) KDA and (2) usability in an actual classroom setting, labeled by experts. Furthermore, when combined with n-gram based similarity metrics, KDA_disc and KDA_cont are shown to have a strong predictive power for various expert-labeled MCQ quality measures.

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Towards Compositional Generalization in Code Search
Hojae Han | Seung-won Hwang | Shuai Lu | Nan Duan | Seungtaek Choi
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We study compositional generalization, which aims to generalize on unseen combinations of seen structural elements, for code search. Unlike existing approaches of partially pursuing this goal, we study how to extract structural elements, which we name a template that directly targets compositional generalization. Thus we propose CTBERT, or Code Template BERT, representing codes using automatically extracted templates as building blocks. We empirically validate CTBERT on two public code search benchmarks, AdvTest and CSN. Further, we show that templates are complementary to data flow graphs in GraphCodeBERT, by enhancing structural context around variables.


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Structure-Augmented Keyphrase Generation
Jihyuk Kim | Myeongho Jeong | Seungtaek Choi | Seung-won Hwang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

This paper studies the keyphrase generation (KG) task for scenarios where structure plays an important role. For example, a scientific publication consists of a short title and a long body, where the title can be used for de-emphasizing unimportant details in the body. Similarly, for short social media posts (, tweets), scarce context can be augmented from titles, though often missing. Our contribution is generating/augmenting structure then injecting these information in the encoding, using existing keyphrases of other documents, complementing missing/incomplete titles. We propose novel structure-augmented document encoding approaches that consist of the following two phases: The first phase, generating structure, extends the given document with related but absent keyphrases, augmenting missing context. The second phase, encoding structure, builds a graph of keyphrases and the given document to obtain the structure-aware representation of the augmented text. Our empirical results validate that our proposed structure augmentation and augmentation-aware encoding/decoding can improve KG for both scenarios, outperforming the state-of-the-art.


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Label-Efficient Training for Next Response Selection
Seungtaek Choi | Myeongho Jeong | Jinyoung Yeo | Seung-won Hwang
Proceedings of SustaiNLP: Workshop on Simple and Efficient Natural Language Processing

This paper studies label augmentation for training dialogue response selection. The existing model is trained by “observational” annotation, where one observed response is annotated as gold. In this paper, we propose “counterfactual augmentation” of pseudo-positive labels. We validate that the effectiveness of augmented labels are comparable to positives, such that ours outperform state-of-the-arts without augmentation.

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Less is More: Attention Supervision with Counterfactuals for Text Classification
Seungtaek Choi | Haeju Park | Jinyoung Yeo | Seung-won Hwang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

We aim to leverage human and machine intelligence together for attention supervision. Specifically, we show that human annotation cost can be kept reasonably low, while its quality can be enhanced by machine self-supervision. Specifically, for this goal, we explore the advantage of counterfactual reasoning, over associative reasoning typically used in attention supervision. Our empirical results show that this machine-augmented human attention supervision is more effective than existing methods requiring a higher annotation cost, in text classification tasks, including sentiment analysis and news categorization.

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Retrieval-Augmented Controllable Review Generation
Jihyeok Kim | Seungtaek Choi | Reinald Kim Amplayo | Seung-won Hwang
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

In this paper, we study review generation given a set of attribute identifiers which are user ID, product ID and rating. This is a difficult subtask of natural language generation since models are limited to the given identifiers, without any specific descriptive information regarding the inputs, when generating the text. The capacity of these models is thus confined and dependent to how well the models can capture vector representations of attributes. We thus propose to additionally leverage references, which are selected from a large pool of texts labeled with one of the attributes, as textual information that enriches inductive biases of given attributes. With these references, we can now pose the problem as an instance of text-to-text generation, which makes the task easier since texts that are syntactically, semantically similar with the output text are provided as input. Using this framework, we address issues such as selecting references from a large candidate set without textual context and improving the model complexity for generation. Our experiments show that our models improve over previous approaches on both automatic and human evaluation metrics.


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MICRON: Multigranular Interaction for Contextualizing RepresentatiON in Non-factoid Question Answering
Hojae Han | Seungtaek Choi | Haeju Park | Seung-won Hwang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

This paper studies the problem of non-factoid question answering, where the answer may span over multiple sentences. Existing solutions can be categorized into representation- and interaction-focused approaches. We combine their complementary strength, by a hybrid approach allowing multi-granular interactions, but represented at word level, enabling an easy integration with strong word-level signals. Specifically, we propose MICRON: Multigranular Interaction for Contextualizing RepresentatiON, a novel approach which derives contextualized uni-gram representation from n-grams. Our contributions are as follows: First, we enable multi-granular matches between question and answer n-grams. Second, by contextualizing word representation with surrounding n-grams, MICRON can naturally utilize word-based signals for query term weighting, known to be effective in information retrieval. We validate MICRON in two public non-factoid question answering datasets: WikiPassageQA and InsuranceQA, showing our model achieves the state of the art among baselines with reported performances on both datasets.


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Visual Choice of Plausible Alternatives: An Evaluation of Image-based Commonsense Causal Reasoning
Jinyoung Yeo | Gyeongbok Lee | Gengyu Wang | Seungtaek Choi | Hyunsouk Cho | Reinald Kim Amplayo | Seung-won Hwang
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)