Shafiq Joty

Also published as: Shafiq R. Joty


2021

pdf bib
Effective Fine-Tuning Methods for Cross-lingual Adaptation
Tao Yu | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Large scale multilingual pre-trained language models have shown promising results in zero- and few-shot cross-lingual tasks. However, recent studies have shown their lack of generalizability when the languages are structurally dissimilar. In this work, we propose a novel fine-tuning method based on co-training that aims to learn more generalized semantic equivalences as a complementary to multilingual language modeling using the unlabeled data in the target language. We also propose an adaption method based on contrastive learning to better capture the semantic relationship in the parallel data, when a few translation pairs are available. To show our method’s effectiveness, we conduct extensive experiments on cross-lingual inference and review classification tasks across various languages. We report significant gains compared to directly fine-tuning multilingual pre-trained models and other semi-supervised alternatives.

pdf bib
CodeT5: Identifier-aware Unified Pre-trained Encoder-Decoder Models for Code Understanding and Generation
Yue Wang | Weishi Wang | Shafiq Joty | Steven C.H. Hoi
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Pre-trained models for Natural Languages (NL) like BERT and GPT have been recently shown to transfer well to Programming Languages (PL) and largely benefit a broad set of code-related tasks. Despite their success, most current methods either rely on an encoder-only (or decoder-only) pre-training that is suboptimal for generation (resp. understanding) tasks or process the code snippet in the same way as NL, neglecting the special characteristics of PL such as token types. We present CodeT5, a unified pre-trained encoder-decoder Transformer model that better leverages the code semantics conveyed from the developer-assigned identifiers. Our model employs a unified framework to seamlessly support both code understanding and generation tasks and allows for multi-task learning. Besides, we propose a novel identifier-aware pre-training task that enables the model to distinguish which code tokens are identifiers and to recover them when they are masked. Furthermore, we propose to exploit the user-written code comments with a bimodal dual generation task for better NL-PL alignment. Comprehensive experiments show that CodeT5 significantly outperforms prior methods on understanding tasks such as code defect detection and clone detection, and generation tasks across various directions including PL-NL, NL-PL, and PL-PL. Further analysis reveals that our model can better capture semantic information from code. Our code and pre-trained models are released at https://github.com/salesforce/CodeT5.

pdf bib
A Unified Speaker Adaptation Approach for ASR
Yingzhu Zhao | Chongjia Ni | Cheung-Chi Leung | Shafiq Joty | Eng Siong Chng | Bin Ma
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Transformer models have been used in automatic speech recognition (ASR) successfully and yields state-of-the-art results. However, its performance is still affected by speaker mismatch between training and test data. Further finetuning a trained model with target speaker data is the most natural approach for adaptation, but it takes a lot of compute and may cause catastrophic forgetting to the existing speakers. In this work, we propose a unified speaker adaptation approach consisting of feature adaptation and model adaptation. For feature adaptation, we employ a speaker-aware persistent memory model which generalizes better to unseen test speakers by making use of speaker i-vectors to form a persistent memory. For model adaptation, we use a novel gradual pruning method to adapt to target speakers without changing the model architecture, which to the best of our knowledge, has never been explored in ASR. Specifically, we gradually prune less contributing parameters on model encoder to a certain sparsity level, and use the pruned parameters for adaptation, while freezing the unpruned parameters to keep the original model performance. We conduct experiments on the Librispeech dataset. Our proposed approach brings relative 2.74-6.52% word error rate (WER) reduction on general speaker adaptation. On target speaker adaptation, our method outperforms the baseline with up to 20.58% relative WER reduction, and surpasses the finetuning method by up to relative 2.54%. Besides, with extremely low-resource adaptation data (e.g., 1 utterance), our method could improve the WER by relative 6.53% with only a few epochs of training.

pdf bib
Code-Mixing on Sesame Street: Dawn of the Adversarial Polyglots
Samson Tan | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Computational Approaches to Linguistic Code-Switching

Multilingual models have demonstrated impressive cross-lingual transfer performance. However, test sets like XNLI are monolingual at the example level. In multilingual communities, it is common for polyglots to code-mix when conversing with each other. Inspired by this phenomenon, we present two strong black-box adversarial attacks (one word-level, one phrase-level) for multilingual models that push their ability to handle code-mixed sentences to the limit. The former (PolyGloss) uses bilingual dictionaries to propose perturbations and translations of the clean example for sense disambiguation. The latter (Bumblebee) directly aligns the clean example with its translations before extracting phrases as perturbations. Bumblebee has a success rate of 89.75% against XLM-R-large, bringing its average accuracy of 79.85 down to 8.18 on XNLI. Finally, we propose an efficient adversarial training scheme, Code-mixed Adversarial Training (CAT), that trains in the same number of steps as the original model. Even after controlling for the extra training data introduced, CAT improves model accuracy when the model is prevented from relying on lexical overlaps (+3.45), with a negligible drop (-0.15 points) in performance on the original XNLI test set. t-SNE visualizations reveal that CAT improves a model’s language agnosticity. This paper will be published in the proceedings of NAACL-HLT 2021.

pdf bib
AugVic: Exploiting BiText Vicinity for Low-Resource NMT
Tasnim Mohiuddin | M Saiful Bari | Shafiq Joty
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

pdf bib
GeDi: Generative Discriminator Guided Sequence Generation
Ben Krause | Akhilesh Deepak Gotmare | Bryan McCann | Nitish Shirish Keskar | Shafiq Joty | Richard Socher | Nazneen Fatema Rajani
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

pdf bib
Rethinking Coherence Modeling: Synthetic vs. Downstream Tasks
Tasnim Mohiuddin | Prathyusha Jwalapuram | Xiang Lin | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Although coherence modeling has come a long way in developing novel models, their evaluation on downstream applications for which they are purportedly developed has largely been neglected. With the advancements made by neural approaches in applications such as machine translation (MT), summarization and dialog systems, the need for coherence evaluation of these tasks is now more crucial than ever. However, coherence models are typically evaluated only on synthetic tasks, which may not be representative of their performance in downstream applications. To investigate how representative the synthetic tasks are of downstream use cases, we conduct experiments on benchmarking well-known traditional and neural coherence models on synthetic sentence ordering tasks, and contrast this with their performance on three downstream applications: coherence evaluation for MT and summarization, and next utterance prediction in retrieval-based dialog. Our results demonstrate a weak correlation between the model performances in the synthetic tasks and the downstream applications, motivating alternate training and evaluation methods for coherence models.

pdf bib
Improving Zero and Few-Shot Abstractive Summarization with Intermediate Fine-tuning and Data Augmentation
Alexander Fabbri | Simeng Han | Haoyuan Li | Haoran Li | Marjan Ghazvininejad | Shafiq Joty | Dragomir Radev | Yashar Mehdad
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Models pretrained with self-supervised objectives on large text corpora achieve state-of-the-art performance on English text summarization tasks. However, these models are typically fine-tuned on hundreds of thousands of data points, an infeasible requirement when applying summarization to new, niche domains. In this work, we introduce a novel and generalizable method, called WikiTransfer, for fine-tuning pretrained models for summarization in an unsupervised, dataset-specific manner. WikiTransfer fine-tunes pretrained models on pseudo-summaries, produced from generic Wikipedia data, which contain characteristics of the target dataset, such as the length and level of abstraction of the desired summaries. WikiTransfer models achieve state-of-the-art, zero-shot abstractive summarization performance on the CNN-DailyMail dataset and demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on three additional diverse datasets. These models are more robust to noisy data and also achieve better or comparable few-shot performance using 10 and 100 training examples when compared to few-shot transfer from other summarization datasets. To further boost performance, we employ data augmentation via round-trip translation as well as introduce a regularization term for improved few-shot transfer. To understand the role of dataset aspects in transfer performance and the quality of the resulting output summaries, we further study the effect of the components of our unsupervised fine-tuning data and analyze few-shot performance using both automatic and human evaluation.

pdf bib
RST Parsing from Scratch
Thanh-Tung Nguyen | Xuan-Phi Nguyen | Shafiq Joty | Xiaoli Li
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

We introduce a novel top-down end-to-end formulation of document level discourse parsing in the Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) framework. In this formulation, we consider discourse parsing as a sequence of splitting decisions at token boundaries and use a seq2seq network to model the splitting decisions. Our framework facilitates discourse parsing from scratch without requiring discourse segmentation as a prerequisite; rather, it yields segmentation as part of the parsing process. Our unified parsing model adopts a beam search to decode the best tree structure by searching through a space of high scoring trees. With extensive experiments on the standard RST discourse treebank, we demonstrate that our parser outperforms existing methods by a good margin in both end-to-end parsing and parsing with gold segmentation. More importantly, it does so without using any handcrafted features, making it faster and easily adaptable to new languages and domains.

pdf bib
Code-Mixing on Sesame Street: Dawn of the Adversarial Polyglots
Samson Tan | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Multilingual models have demonstrated impressive cross-lingual transfer performance. However, test sets like XNLI are monolingual at the example level. In multilingual communities, it is common for polyglots to code-mix when conversing with each other. Inspired by this phenomenon, we present two strong black-box adversarial attacks (one word-level, one phrase-level) for multilingual models that push their ability to handle code-mixed sentences to the limit. The former uses bilingual dictionaries to propose perturbations and translations of the clean example for sense disambiguation. The latter directly aligns the clean example with its translations before extracting phrases as perturbations. Our phrase-level attack has a success rate of 89.75% against XLM-R-large, bringing its average accuracy of 79.85 down to 8.18 on XNLI. Finally, we propose an efficient adversarial training scheme that trains in the same number of steps as the original model and show that it creates more language-invariant representations, improving clean and robust accuracy in the absence of lexical overlap without degrading performance on the original examples.

pdf bib
Addressing the Vulnerability of NMT in Input Perturbations
Weiwen Xu | Ai Ti Aw | Yang Ding | Kui Wu | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Industry Papers

Neural Machine Translation (NMT) has achieved significant breakthrough in performance but is known to suffer vulnerability to input perturbations. As real input noise is difficult to predict during training, robustness is a big issue for system deployment. In this paper, we improve the robustness of NMT models by reducing the effect of noisy words through a Context-Enhanced Reconstruction (CER) approach. CER trains the model to resist noise in two steps: (1) perturbation step that breaks the naturalness of input sequence with made-up words; (2) reconstruction step that defends the noise propagation by generating better and more robust contextual representation. Experimental results on Chinese-English (ZH-EN) and French-English (FR-EN) translation tasks demonstrate robustness improvement on both news and social media text. Further fine-tuning experiments on social media text show our approach can converge at a higher position and provide a better adaptation.

pdf bib
UXLA: A Robust Unsupervised Data Augmentation Framework for Zero-Resource Cross-Lingual NLP
M Saiful Bari | Tasnim Mohiuddin | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Transfer learning has yielded state-of-the-art (SoTA) results in many supervised NLP tasks. However, annotated data for every target task in every target language is rare, especially for low-resource languages. We propose UXLA, a novel unsupervised data augmentation framework for zero-resource transfer learning scenarios. In particular, UXLA aims to solve cross-lingual adaptation problems from a source language task distribution to an unknown target language task distribution, assuming no training label in the target language. At its core, UXLA performs simultaneous self-training with data augmentation and unsupervised sample selection. To show its effectiveness, we conduct extensive experiments on three diverse zero-resource cross-lingual transfer tasks. UXLA achieves SoTA results in all the tasks, outperforming the baselines by a good margin. With an in-depth framework dissection, we demonstrate the cumulative contributions of different components to its success.

pdf bib
Reliability Testing for Natural Language Processing Systems
Samson Tan | Shafiq Joty | Kathy Baxter | Araz Taeihagh | Gregory A. Bennett | Min-Yen Kan
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Questions of fairness, robustness, and transparency are paramount to address before deploying NLP systems. Central to these concerns is the question of reliability: Can NLP systems reliably treat different demographics fairly and function correctly in diverse and noisy environments? To address this, we argue for the need for reliability testing and contextualize it among existing work on improving accountability. We show how adversarial attacks can be reframed for this goal, via a framework for developing reliability tests. We argue that reliability testing — with an emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration — will enable rigorous and targeted testing, and aid in the enactment and enforcement of industry standards.

pdf bib
A Conditional Splitting Framework for Efficient Constituency Parsing
Thanh-Tung Nguyen | Xuan-Phi Nguyen | Shafiq Joty | Xiaoli Li
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We introduce a generic seq2seq parsing framework that casts constituency parsing problems (syntactic and discourse parsing) into a series of conditional splitting decisions. Our parsing model estimates the conditional probability distribution of possible splitting points in a given text span and supports efficient top-down decoding, which is linear in number of nodes. The conditional splitting formulation together with efficient beam search inference facilitate structural consistency without relying on expensive structured inference. Crucially, for discourse analysis we show that in our formulation, discourse segmentation can be framed as a special case of parsing which allows us to perform discourse parsing without requiring segmentation as a pre-requisite. Experiments show that our model achieves good results on the standard syntactic parsing tasks under settings with/without pre-trained representations and rivals state-of-the-art (SoTA) methods that are more computationally expensive than ours. In discourse parsing, our method outperforms SoTA by a good margin.

pdf bib
MulDA: A Multilingual Data Augmentation Framework for Low-Resource Cross-Lingual NER
Linlin Liu | Bosheng Ding | Lidong Bing | Shafiq Joty | Luo Si | Chunyan Miao
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Named Entity Recognition (NER) for low-resource languages is a both practical and challenging research problem. This paper addresses zero-shot transfer for cross-lingual NER, especially when the amount of source-language training data is also limited. The paper first proposes a simple but effective labeled sequence translation method to translate source-language training data to target languages and avoids problems such as word order change and entity span determination. With the source-language data as well as the translated data, a generation-based multilingual data augmentation method is introduced to further increase diversity by generating synthetic labeled data in multiple languages. These augmented data enable the language model based NER models to generalize better with both the language-specific features from the target-language synthetic data and the language-independent features from multilingual synthetic data. An extensive set of experiments were conducted to demonstrate encouraging cross-lingual transfer performance of the new research on a wide variety of target languages.

2020

pdf bib
Explicit Memory Tracker with Coarse-to-Fine Reasoning for Conversational Machine Reading
Yifan Gao | Chien-Sheng Wu | Shafiq Joty | Caiming Xiong | Richard Socher | Irwin King | Michael Lyu | Steven C.H. Hoi
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

The goal of conversational machine reading is to answer user questions given a knowledge base text which may require asking clarification questions. Existing approaches are limited in their decision making due to struggles in extracting question-related rules and reasoning about them. In this paper, we present a new framework of conversational machine reading that comprises a novel Explicit Memory Tracker (EMT) to track whether conditions listed in the rule text have already been satisfied to make a decision. Moreover, our framework generates clarification questions by adopting a coarse-to-fine reasoning strategy, utilizing sentence-level entailment scores to weight token-level distributions. On the ShARC benchmark (blind, held-out) testset, EMT achieves new state-of-the-art results of 74.6% micro-averaged decision accuracy and 49.5 BLEU4. We also show that EMT is more interpretable by visualizing the entailment-oriented reasoning process as the conversation flows. Code and models are released at https://github.com/Yifan-Gao/explicit_memory_tracker.

pdf bib
It’s Morphin’ Time! Combating Linguistic Discrimination with Inflectional Perturbations
Samson Tan | Shafiq Joty | Min-Yen Kan | Richard Socher
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Training on only perfect Standard English corpora predisposes pre-trained neural networks to discriminate against minorities from non-standard linguistic backgrounds (e.g., African American Vernacular English, Colloquial Singapore English, etc.). We perturb the inflectional morphology of words to craft plausible and semantically similar adversarial examples that expose these biases in popular NLP models, e.g., BERT and Transformer, and show that adversarially fine-tuning them for a single epoch significantly improves robustness without sacrificing performance on clean data.

pdf bib
Efficient Constituency Parsing by Pointing
Thanh-Tung Nguyen | Xuan-Phi Nguyen | Shafiq Joty | Xiaoli Li
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We propose a novel constituency parsing model that casts the parsing problem into a series of pointing tasks. Specifically, our model estimates the likelihood of a span being a legitimate tree constituent via the pointing score corresponding to the boundary words of the span. Our parsing model supports efficient top-down decoding and our learning objective is able to enforce structural consistency without resorting to the expensive CKY inference. The experiments on the standard English Penn Treebank parsing task show that our method achieves 92.78 F1 without using pre-trained models, which is higher than all the existing methods with similar time complexity. Using pre-trained BERT, our model achieves 95.48 F1, which is competitive with the state-of-the-art while being faster. Our approach also establishes new state-of-the-art in Basque and Swedish in the SPMRL shared tasks on multilingual constituency parsing.

pdf bib
Differentiable Window for Dynamic Local Attention
Thanh-Tung Nguyen | Xuan-Phi Nguyen | Shafiq Joty | Xiaoli Li
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We propose Differentiable Window, a new neural module and general purpose component for dynamic window selection. While universally applicable, we demonstrate a compelling use case of utilizing Differentiable Window to improve standard attention modules by enabling more focused attentions over the input regions. We propose two variants of Differentiable Window, and integrate them within the Transformer architecture in two novel ways. We evaluate our proposed approach on a myriad of NLP tasks, including machine translation, sentiment analysis, subject-verb agreement and language modeling. Our experimental results demonstrate consistent and sizable improvements across all tasks.

pdf bib
Pronoun-Targeted Fine-tuning for NMT with Hybrid Losses
Prathyusha Jwalapuram | Shafiq Joty | Youlin Shen
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Popular Neural Machine Translation model training uses strategies like backtranslation to improve BLEU scores, requiring large amounts of additional data and training. We introduce a class of conditional generative-discriminative hybrid losses that we use to fine-tune a trained machine translation model. Through a combination of targeted fine-tuning objectives and intuitive re-use of the training data the model has failed to adequately learn from, we improve the model performance of both a sentence-level and a contextual model without using any additional data. We target the improvement of pronoun translations through our fine-tuning and evaluate our models on a pronoun benchmark testset. Our sentence-level model shows a 0.5 BLEU improvement on both the WMT14 and the IWSLT13 De-En testsets, while our contextual model achieves the best results, improving from 31.81 to 32 BLEU on WMT14 De-En testset, and from 32.10 to 33.13 on the IWSLT13 De-En testset, with corresponding improvements in pronoun translation. We further show the generalizability of our method by reproducing the improvements on two additional language pairs, Fr-En and Cs-En.

pdf bib
Discern: Discourse-Aware Entailment Reasoning Network for Conversational Machine Reading
Yifan Gao | Chien-Sheng Wu | Jingjing Li | Shafiq Joty | Steven C.H. Hoi | Caiming Xiong | Irwin King | Michael Lyu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Document interpretation and dialog understanding are the two major challenges for conversational machine reading. In this work, we propose “Discern”, a discourse-aware entailment reasoning network to strengthen the connection and enhance the understanding of both document and dialog. Specifically, we split the document into clause-like elementary discourse units (EDU) using a pre-trained discourse segmentation model, and we train our model in a weakly-supervised manner to predict whether each EDU is entailed by the user feedback in a conversation. Based on the learned EDU and entailment representations, we either reply to the user our final decision “yes/no/irrelevant” of the initial question, or generate a follow-up question to inquiry more information. Our experiments on the ShARC benchmark (blind, held-out test set) show that Discern achieves state-of-the-art results of 78.3% macro-averaged accuracy on decision making and 64.0 BLEU1 on follow-up question generation. Code and models are released at https://github.com/Yifan-Gao/Discern.

pdf bib
LNMap: Departures from Isomorphic Assumption in Bilingual Lexicon Induction Through Non-Linear Mapping in Latent Space
Tasnim Mohiuddin | M Saiful Bari | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Most of the successful and predominant methods for Bilingual Lexicon Induction (BLI) are mapping-based, where a linear mapping function is learned with the assumption that the word embedding spaces of different languages exhibit similar geometric structures (i.e. approximately isomorphic). However, several recent studies have criticized this simplified assumption showing that it does not hold in general even for closely related languages. In this work, we propose a novel semi-supervised method to learn cross-lingual word embeddings for BLI. Our model is independent of the isomorphic assumption and uses non-linear mapping in the latent space of two independently pre-trained autoencoders. Through extensive experiments on fifteen (15) different language pairs (in both directions) comprising resource-rich and low-resource languages from two different datasets, we demonstrate that our method outperforms existing models by a good margin. Ablation studies show the importance of different model components and the necessity of non-linear mapping.

pdf bib
VD-BERT: A Unified Vision and Dialog Transformer with BERT
Yue Wang | Shafiq Joty | Michael Lyu | Irwin King | Caiming Xiong | Steven C.H. Hoi
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Visual dialog is a challenging vision-language task, where a dialog agent needs to answer a series of questions through reasoning on the image content and dialog history. Prior work has mostly focused on various attention mechanisms to model such intricate interactions. By contrast, in this work, we propose VD-BERT, a simple yet effective framework of unified vision-dialog Transformer that leverages the pretrained BERT language models for Visual Dialog tasks. The model is unified in that (1) it captures all the interactions between the image and the multi-turn dialog using a single-stream Transformer encoder, and (2) it supports both answer ranking and answer generation seamlessly through the same architecture. More crucially, we adapt BERT for the effective fusion of vision and dialog contents via visually grounded training. Without the need of pretraining on external vision-language data, our model yields new state of the art, achieving the top position in both single-model and ensemble settings (74.54 and 75.35 NDCG scores) on the visual dialog leaderboard. Our code and pretrained models are released at https://github.com/salesforce/VD-BERT.

pdf bib
Mind Your Inflections! Improving NLP for Non-Standard Englishes with Base-Inflection Encoding
Samson Tan | Shafiq Joty | Lav Varshney | Min-Yen Kan
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Inflectional variation is a common feature of World Englishes such as Colloquial Singapore English and African American Vernacular English. Although comprehension by human readers is usually unimpaired by non-standard inflections, current NLP systems are not yet robust. We propose Base-Inflection Encoding (BITE), a method to tokenize English text by reducing inflected words to their base forms before reinjecting the grammatical information as special symbols. Fine-tuning pretrained NLP models for downstream tasks using our encoding defends against inflectional adversaries while maintaining performance on clean data. Models using BITE generalize better to dialects with non-standard inflections without explicit training and translation models converge faster when trained with BITE. Finally, we show that our encoding improves the vocabulary efficiency of popular data-driven subword tokenizers. Since there has been no prior work on quantitatively evaluating vocabulary efficiency, we propose metrics to do so.

pdf bib
DAGA: Data Augmentation with a Generation Approach for Low-resource Tagging Tasks
Bosheng Ding | Linlin Liu | Lidong Bing | Canasai Kruengkrai | Thien Hai Nguyen | Shafiq Joty | Luo Si | Chunyan Miao
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Data augmentation techniques have been widely used to improve machine learning performance as they facilitate generalization. In this work, we propose a novel augmentation method to generate high quality synthetic data for low-resource tagging tasks with language models trained on the linearized labeled sentences. Our method is applicable to both supervised and semi-supervised settings. For the supervised settings, we conduct extensive experiments on named entity recognition (NER), part of speech (POS) tagging and end-to-end target based sentiment analysis (E2E-TBSA) tasks. For the semi-supervised settings, we evaluate our method on the NER task under the conditions of given unlabeled data only and unlabeled data plus a knowledge base. The results show that our method can consistently outperform the baselines, particularly when the given gold training data are less.

pdf bib
Online Conversation Disentanglement with Pointer Networks
Tao Yu | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Huge amounts of textual conversations occur online every day, where multiple conversations take place concurrently. Interleaved conversations lead to difficulties in not only following the ongoing discussions but also extracting relevant information from simultaneous messages. Conversation disentanglement aims to separate intermingled messages into detached conversations. However, existing disentanglement methods rely mostly on handcrafted features that are dataset specific, which hinders generalization and adaptability. In this work, we propose an end-to-end online framework for conversation disentanglement that avoids time-consuming domain-specific feature engineering. We design a novel way to embed the whole utterance that comprises timestamp, speaker, and message text, and propose a custom attention mechanism that models disentanglement as a pointing problem while effectively capturing inter-utterance interactions in an end-to-end fashion. We also introduce a joint-learning objective to better capture contextual information. Our experiments on the Ubuntu IRC dataset show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance in both link and conversation prediction tasks.

pdf bib
Response Selection for Multi-Party Conversations with Dynamic Topic Tracking
Weishi Wang | Steven C.H. Hoi | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

While participants in a multi-party multi-turn conversation simultaneously engage in multiple conversation topics, existing response selection methods are developed mainly focusing on a two-party single-conversation scenario. Hence, the prolongation and transition of conversation topics are ignored by current methods. In this work, we frame response selection as a dynamic topic tracking task to match the topic between the response and relevant conversation context. With this new formulation, we propose a novel multi-task learning framework that supports efficient encoding through large pretrained models with only two utterances at once to perform dynamic topic disentanglement and response selection. We also propose Topic-BERT an essential pretraining step to embed topic information into BERT with self-supervised learning. Experimental results on the DSTC-8 Ubuntu IRC dataset show state-of-the-art results in response selection and topic disentanglement tasks outperforming existing methods by a good margin.

pdf bib
Unsupervised Word Translation with Adversarial Autoencoder
Tasnim Mohiuddin | Shafiq Joty
Computational Linguistics, Volume 46, Issue 2 - June 2020

Crosslingual word embeddings learned from monolingual embeddings have a crucial role in many downstream tasks, ranging from machine translation to transfer learning. Adversarial training has shown impressive success in learning crosslingual embeddings and the associated word translation task without any parallel data by mapping monolingual embeddings to a shared space. However, recent work has shown superior performance for non-adversarial methods in more challenging language pairs. In this article, we investigate adversarial autoencoder for unsupervised word translation and propose two novel extensions to it that yield more stable training and improved results. Our method includes regularization terms to enforce cycle consistency and input reconstruction, and puts the target encoders as an adversary against the corresponding discriminator. We use two types of refinement procedures sequentially after obtaining the trained encoders and mappings from the adversarial training, namely, refinement with Procrustes solution and refinement with symmetric re-weighting. Extensive experimentations with high- and low-resource languages from two different data sets show that our method achieves better performance than existing adversarial and non-adversarial approaches and is also competitive with the supervised system. Along with performing comprehensive ablation studies to understand the contribution of different components of our adversarial model, we also conduct a thorough analysis of the refinement procedures to understand their effects.

pdf bib
Proceedings of SustaiNLP: Workshop on Simple and Efficient Natural Language Processing
Nafise Sadat Moosavi | Angela Fan | Vered Shwartz | Goran Glavaš | Shafiq Joty | Alex Wang | Thomas Wolf
Proceedings of SustaiNLP: Workshop on Simple and Efficient Natural Language Processing

2019

pdf bib
Hierarchical Pointer Net Parsing
Linlin Liu | Xiang Lin | Shafiq Joty | Simeng Han | Lidong Bing
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Transition-based top-down parsing with pointer networks has achieved state-of-the-art results in multiple parsing tasks, while having a linear time complexity. However, the decoder of these parsers has a sequential structure, which does not yield the most appropriate inductive bias for deriving tree structures. In this paper, we propose hierarchical pointer network parsers, and apply them to dependency and sentence-level discourse parsing tasks. Our results on standard benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, outperforming existing methods and setting a new state-of-the-art.

pdf bib
A Unified Neural Coherence Model
Han Cheol Moon | Tasnim Mohiuddin | Shafiq Joty | Chi Xu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Recently, neural approaches to coherence modeling have achieved state-of-the-art results in several evaluation tasks. However, we show that most of these models often fail on harder tasks with more realistic application scenarios. In particular, the existing models underperform on tasks that require the model to be sensitive to local contexts such as candidate ranking in conversational dialogue and in machine translation. In this paper, we propose a unified coherence model that incorporates sentence grammar, inter-sentence coherence relations, and global coherence patterns into a common neural framework. With extensive experiments on local and global discrimination tasks, we demonstrate that our proposed model outperforms existing models by a good margin, and establish a new state-of-the-art.

pdf bib
Evaluating Pronominal Anaphora in Machine Translation: An Evaluation Measure and a Test Suite
Prathyusha Jwalapuram | Shafiq Joty | Irina Temnikova | Preslav Nakov
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

The ongoing neural revolution in machine translation has made it easier to model larger contexts beyond the sentence-level, which can potentially help resolve some discourse-level ambiguities such as pronominal anaphora, thus enabling better translations. Unfortunately, even when the resulting improvements are seen as substantial by humans, they remain virtually unnoticed by traditional automatic evaluation measures like BLEU, as only a few words end up being affected. Thus, specialized evaluation measures are needed. With this aim in mind, we contribute an extensive, targeted dataset that can be used as a test suite for pronoun translation, covering multiple source languages and different pronoun errors drawn from real system translations, for English. We further propose an evaluation measure to differentiate good and bad pronoun translations. We also conduct a user study to report correlations with human judgments.

pdf bib
Using Clinical Notes with Time Series Data for ICU Management
Swaraj Khadanga | Karan Aggarwal | Shafiq Joty | Jaideep Srivastava
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Monitoring patients in ICU is a challenging and high-cost task. Hence, predicting the condition of patients during their ICU stay can help provide better acute care and plan the hospital’s resources. There has been continuous progress in machine learning research for ICU management, and most of this work has focused on using time series signals recorded by ICU instruments. In our work, we show that adding clinical notes as another modality improves the performance of the model for three benchmark tasks: in-hospital mortality prediction, modeling decompensation, and length of stay forecasting that play an important role in ICU management. While the time-series data is measured at regular intervals, doctor notes are charted at irregular times, making it challenging to model them together. We propose a method to model them jointly, achieving considerable improvement across benchmark tasks over baseline time-series model.

pdf bib
Sentence-Level Evidence Embedding for Claim Verification with Hierarchical Attention Networks
Jing Ma | Wei Gao | Shafiq Joty | Kam-Fai Wong
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Claim verification is generally a task of verifying the veracity of a given claim, which is critical to many downstream applications. It is cumbersome and inefficient for human fact-checkers to find consistent pieces of evidence, from which solid verdict could be inferred against the claim. In this paper, we propose a novel end-to-end hierarchical attention network focusing on learning to represent coherent evidence as well as their semantic relatedness with the claim. Our model consists of three main components: 1) A coherence-based attention layer embeds coherent evidence considering the claim and sentences from relevant articles; 2) An entailment-based attention layer attends on sentences that can semantically infer the claim on top of the first attention; and 3) An output layer predicts the verdict based on the embedded evidence. Experimental results on three public benchmark datasets show that our proposed model outperforms a set of state-of-the-art baselines.

pdf bib
A Unified Linear-Time Framework for Sentence-Level Discourse Parsing
Xiang Lin | Shafiq Joty | Prathyusha Jwalapuram | M Saiful Bari
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We propose an efficient neural framework for sentence-level discourse analysis in accordance with Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST). Our framework comprises a discourse segmenter to identify the elementary discourse units (EDU) in a text, and a discourse parser that constructs a discourse tree in a top-down fashion. Both the segmenter and the parser are based on Pointer Networks and operate in linear time. Our segmenter yields an F1 score of 95.4%, and our parser achieves an F1 score of 81.7% on the aggregated labeled (relation) metric, surpassing previous approaches by a good margin and approaching human agreement on both tasks (98.3 and 83.0 F1).

pdf bib
Discourse Analysis and Its Applications
Shafiq Joty | Giuseppe Carenini | Raymond Ng | Gabriel Murray
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Tutorial Abstracts

Discourse processing is a suite of Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks to uncover linguistic structures from texts at several levels, which can support many downstream applications. This involves identifying the topic structure, the coherence structure, the coreference structure, and the conversation structure for conversational discourse. Taken together, these structures can inform text summarization, machine translation, essay scoring, sentiment analysis, information extraction, question answering, and thread recovery. The tutorial starts with an overview of basic concepts in discourse analysis – monologue vs. conversation, synchronous vs. asynchronous conversation, and key linguistic structures in discourse analysis. We also give an overview of linguistic structures and corresponding discourse analysis tasks that discourse researchers are generally interested in, as well as key applications on which these discourse structures have an impact.

pdf bib
Adaptation of Hierarchical Structured Models for Speech Act Recognition in Asynchronous Conversation
Tasnim Mohiuddin | Thanh-Tung Nguyen | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

We address the problem of speech act recognition (SAR) in asynchronous conversations (forums, emails). Unlike synchronous conversations (e.g., meetings, phone), asynchronous domains lack large labeled datasets to train an effective SAR model. In this paper, we propose methods to effectively leverage abundant unlabeled conversational data and the available labeled data from synchronous domains. We carry out our research in three main steps. First, we introduce a neural architecture based on hierarchical LSTMs and conditional random fields (CRF) for SAR, and show that our method outperforms existing methods when trained on in-domain data only. Second, we improve our initial SAR models by semi-supervised learning in the form of pretrained word embeddings learned from a large unlabeled conversational corpus. Finally, we employ adversarial training to improve the results further by leveraging the labeled data from synchronous domains and by explicitly modeling the distributional shift in two domains.

pdf bib
Revisiting Adversarial Autoencoder for Unsupervised Word Translation with Cycle Consistency and Improved Training
Tasnim Mohiuddin | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Adversarial training has shown impressive success in learning bilingual dictionary without any parallel data by mapping monolingual embeddings to a shared space. However, recent work has shown superior performance for non-adversarial methods in more challenging language pairs. In this work, we revisit adversarial autoencoder for unsupervised word translation and propose two novel extensions to it that yield more stable training and improved results. Our method includes regularization terms to enforce cycle consistency and input reconstruction, and puts the target encoders as an adversary against the corresponding discriminator. Extensive experimentations with European, non-European and low-resource languages show that our method is more robust and achieves better performance than recently proposed adversarial and non-adversarial approaches.

2018

pdf bib
Joint Multitask Learning for Community Question Answering Using Task-Specific Embeddings
Shafiq Joty | Lluís Màrquez | Preslav Nakov
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We address jointly two important tasks for Question Answering in community forums: given a new question, (i) find related existing questions, and (ii) find relevant answers to this new question. We further use an auxiliary task to complement the previous two, i.e., (iii) find good answers with respect to the thread question in a question-comment thread. We use deep neural networks (DNNs) to learn meaningful task-specific embeddings, which we then incorporate into a conditional random field (CRF) model for the multitask setting, performing joint learning over a complex graph structure. While DNNs alone achieve competitive results when trained to produce the embeddings, the CRF, which makes use of the embeddings and the dependencies between the tasks, improves the results significantly and consistently across a variety of evaluation metrics, thus showing the complementarity of DNNs and structured learning.

pdf bib
Coherence Modeling of Asynchronous Conversations: A Neural Entity Grid Approach
Shafiq Joty | Muhammad Tasnim Mohiuddin | Dat Tien Nguyen
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We propose a novel coherence model for written asynchronous conversations (e.g., forums, emails), and show its applications in coherence assessment and thread reconstruction tasks. We conduct our research in two steps. First, we propose improvements to the recently proposed neural entity grid model by lexicalizing its entity transitions. Then, we extend the model to asynchronous conversations by incorporating the underlying conversational structure in the entity grid representation and feature computation. Our model achieves state of the art results on standard coherence assessment tasks in monologue and conversations outperforming existing models. We also demonstrate its effectiveness in reconstructing thread structures.

pdf bib
Domain Adaptation with Adversarial Training and Graph Embeddings
Firoj Alam | Shafiq Joty | Muhammad Imran
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The success of deep neural networks (DNNs) is heavily dependent on the availability of labeled data. However, obtaining labeled data is a big challenge in many real-world problems. In such scenarios, a DNN model can leverage labeled and unlabeled data from a related domain, but it has to deal with the shift in data distributions between the source and the target domains. In this paper, we study the problem of classifying social media posts during a crisis event (e.g., Earthquake). For that, we use labeled and unlabeled data from past similar events (e.g., Flood) and unlabeled data for the current event. We propose a novel model that performs adversarial learning based domain adaptation to deal with distribution drifts and graph based semi-supervised learning to leverage unlabeled data within a single unified deep learning framework. Our experiments with two real-world crisis datasets collected from Twitter demonstrate significant improvements over several baselines.

pdf bib
Modeling Speech Acts in Asynchronous Conversations: A Neural-CRF Approach
Shafiq Joty | Tasnim Mohiuddin
Computational Linguistics, Volume 44, Issue 4 - December 2018

Participants in an asynchronous conversation (e.g., forum, e-mail) interact with each other at different times, performing certain communicative acts, called speech acts (e.g., question, request). In this article, we propose a hybrid approach to speech act recognition in asynchronous conversations. Our approach works in two main steps: a long short-term memory recurrent neural network (LSTM-RNN) first encodes each sentence separately into a task-specific distributed representation, and this is then used in a conditional random field (CRF) model to capture the conversational dependencies between sentences. The LSTM-RNN model uses pretrained word embeddings learned from a large conversational corpus and is trained to classify sentences into speech act types. The CRF model can consider arbitrary graph structures to model conversational dependencies in an asynchronous conversation. In addition, to mitigate the problem of limited annotated data in the asynchronous domains, we adapt the LSTM-RNN model to learn from synchronous conversations (e.g., meetings), using domain adversarial training of neural networks. Empirical evaluation shows the effectiveness of our approach over existing ones: (i) LSTM-RNNs provide better task-specific representations, (ii) conversational word embeddings benefit the LSTM-RNNs more than the off-the-shelf ones, (iii) adversarial training gives better domain-invariant representations, and (iv) the global CRF model improves over local models.

pdf bib
NLP for Conversations: Sentiment, Summarization, and Group Dynamics
Gabriel Murray | Giuseppe Carenini | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Tutorial Abstracts

2017

pdf bib
A Neural Local Coherence Model
Dat Tien Nguyen | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We propose a local coherence model based on a convolutional neural network that operates over the entity grid representation of a text. The model captures long range entity transitions along with entity-specific features without loosing generalization, thanks to the power of distributed representation. We present a pairwise ranking method to train the model in an end-to-end fashion on a task and learn task-specific high level features. Our evaluation on three different coherence assessment tasks demonstrates that our model achieves state of the art results outperforming existing models by a good margin.

pdf bib
Cross-language Learning with Adversarial Neural Networks
Shafiq Joty | Preslav Nakov | Lluís Màrquez | Israa Jaradat
Proceedings of the 21st Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL 2017)

We address the problem of cross-language adaptation for question-question similarity reranking in community question answering, with the objective to port a system trained on one input language to another input language given labeled training data for the first language and only unlabeled data for the second language. In particular, we propose to use adversarial training of neural networks to learn high-level features that are discriminative for the main learning task, and at the same time are invariant across the input languages. The evaluation results show sizable improvements for our cross-language adversarial neural network (CLANN) model over a strong non-adversarial system.

pdf bib
Discourse Structure in Machine Translation Evaluation
Shafiq Joty | Francisco Guzmán | Lluís Màrquez | Preslav Nakov
Computational Linguistics, Volume 43, Issue 4 - December 2017

In this article, we explore the potential of using sentence-level discourse structure for machine translation evaluation. We first design discourse-aware similarity measures, which use all-subtree kernels to compare discourse parse trees in accordance with the Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST). Then, we show that a simple linear combination with these measures can help improve various existing machine translation evaluation metrics regarding correlation with human judgments both at the segment level and at the system level. This suggests that discourse information is complementary to the information used by many of the existing evaluation metrics, and thus it could be taken into account when developing richer evaluation metrics, such as the WMT-14 winning combined metric DiscoTKparty. We also provide a detailed analysis of the relevance of various discourse elements and relations from the RST parse trees for machine translation evaluation. In particular, we show that (i) all aspects of the RST tree are relevant, (ii) nuclearity is more useful than relation type, and (iii) the similarity of the translation RST tree to the reference RST tree is positively correlated with translation quality.

2016

pdf bib
ConvKN at SemEval-2016 Task 3: Answer and Question Selection for Question Answering on Arabic and English Fora
Alberto Barrón-Cedeño | Daniele Bonadiman | Giovanni Da San Martino | Shafiq Joty | Alessandro Moschitti | Fahad Al Obaidli | Salvatore Romeo | Kateryna Tymoshenko | Antonio Uva
Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2016)

pdf bib
Joint Learning with Global Inference for Comment Classification in Community Question Answering
Shafiq Joty | Lluís Màrquez | Preslav Nakov
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

pdf bib
A Deep Fusion Model for Domain Adaptation in Phrase-based MT
Nadir Durrani | Hassan Sajjad | Shafiq Joty | Ahmed Abdelali
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

We present a novel fusion model for domain adaptation in Statistical Machine Translation. Our model is based on the joint source-target neural network Devlin et al., 2014, and is learned by fusing in- and out-domain models. The adaptation is performed by backpropagating errors from the output layer to the word embedding layer of each model, subsequently adjusting parameters of the composite model towards the in-domain data. On the standard tasks of translating English-to-German and Arabic-to-English TED talks, we observed average improvements of +0.9 and +0.7 BLEU points, respectively over a competition grade phrase-based system. We also demonstrate improvements over existing adaptation methods.

pdf bib
An Interactive System for Exploring Community Question Answering Forums
Enamul Hoque | Shafiq Joty | Lluís Màrquez | Alberto Barrón-Cedeño | Giovanni Da San Martino | Alessandro Moschitti | Preslav Nakov | Salvatore Romeo | Giuseppe Carenini
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

We present an interactive system to provide effective and efficient search capabilities in Community Question Answering (cQA) forums. The system integrates state-of-the-art technology for answer search with a Web-based user interface specifically tailored to support the cQA forum readers. The answer search module automatically finds relevant answers for a new question by exploring related questions and the comments within their threads. The graphical user interface presents the search results and supports the exploration of related information. The system is running live at http://www.qatarliving.com/betasearch/.

pdf bib
Speech Act Modeling of Written Asynchronous Conversations with Task-Specific Embeddings and Conditional Structured Models
Shafiq Joty | Enamul Hoque
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2015

pdf bib
QCRI: Answer Selection for Community Question Answering - Experiments for Arabic and English
Massimo Nicosia | Simone Filice | Alberto Barrón-Cedeño | Iman Saleh | Hamdy Mubarak | Wei Gao | Preslav Nakov | Giovanni Da San Martino | Alessandro Moschitti | Kareem Darwish | Lluís Màrquez | Shafiq Joty | Walid Magdy
Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2015)

pdf bib
Global Thread-level Inference for Comment Classification in Community Question Answering
Shafiq Joty | Alberto Barrón-Cedeño | Giovanni Da San Martino | Simone Filice | Lluís Màrquez | Alessandro Moschitti | Preslav Nakov
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

pdf bib
How to Avoid Unwanted Pregnancies: Domain Adaptation using Neural Network Models
Shafiq Joty | Hassan Sajjad | Nadir Durrani | Kamla Al-Mannai | Ahmed Abdelali | Stephan Vogel
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

pdf bib
Fine-grained Opinion Mining with Recurrent Neural Networks and Word Embeddings
Pengfei Liu | Shafiq Joty | Helen Meng
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

pdf bib
Using joint models or domain adaptation in statistical machine translation
Nadir Durrani | Hassan Sajjad | Shafiq Joty | Ahmed Abdelali | Stephan Vogel
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit XV: Papers

pdf bib
Pairwise Neural Machine Translation Evaluation
Francisco Guzmán | Shafiq Joty | Lluís Màrquez | Preslav Nakov
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

pdf bib
Thread-Level Information for Comment Classification in Community Question Answering
Alberto Barrón-Cedeño | Simone Filice | Giovanni Da San Martino | Shafiq Joty | Lluís Màrquez | Preslav Nakov | Alessandro Moschitti
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

pdf bib
CODRA: A Novel Discriminative Framework for Rhetorical Analysis
Shafiq Joty | Giuseppe Carenini | Raymond T. Ng
Computational Linguistics, Volume 41, Issue 3 - September 2015

2014

pdf bib
Interactive Exploration of Asynchronous Conversations: Applying a User-centered Approach to Design a Visual Text Analytic System
Enamul Hoque | Giuseppe Carenini | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of the Workshop on Interactive Language Learning, Visualization, and Interfaces

pdf bib
DiscoTK: Using Discourse Structure for Machine Translation Evaluation
Shafiq Joty | Francisco Guzmán | Lluís Màrquez | Preslav Nakov
Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

pdf bib
Learning to Differentiate Better from Worse Translations
Francisco Guzmán | Shafiq Joty | Lluís Màrquez | Alessandro Moschitti | Preslav Nakov | Massimo Nicosia
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

pdf bib
Semantic Kernels for Semantic Parsing
Iman Saleh | Alessandro Moschitti | Preslav Nakov | Lluís Màrquez | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

pdf bib
Discriminative Reranking of Discourse Parses Using Tree Kernels
Shafiq Joty | Alessandro Moschitti
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

pdf bib
A Study of using Syntactic and Semantic Structures for Concept Segmentation and Labeling
Iman Saleh | Scott Cyphers | Jim Glass | Shafiq Joty | Lluís Màrquez | Alessandro Moschitti | Preslav Nakov
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

pdf bib
Using Discourse Structure Improves Machine Translation Evaluation
Francisco Guzmán | Shafiq Joty | Lluís Màrquez | Preslav Nakov
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2013

pdf bib
Combining Intra- and Multi-sentential Rhetorical Parsing for Document-level Discourse Analysis
Shafiq Joty | Giuseppe Carenini | Raymond Ng | Yashar Mehdad
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

pdf bib
Towards Topic Labeling with Phrase Entailment and Aggregation
Yashar Mehdad | Giuseppe Carenini | Raymond T. Ng | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

pdf bib
Dialogue Act Recognition in Synchronous and Asynchronous Conversations
Maryam Tavafi | Yashar Mehdad | Shafiq Joty | Giuseppe Carenini | Raymond Ng
Proceedings of the SIGDIAL 2013 Conference

2012

pdf bib
A Novel Discriminative Framework for Sentence-Level Discourse Analysis
Shafiq Joty | Giuseppe Carenini | Raymond Ng
Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning

2010

pdf bib
Exploiting Conversation Structure in Unsupervised Topic Segmentation for Emails
Shafiq Joty | Giuseppe Carenini | Gabriel Murray | Raymond T. Ng
Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

2009

pdf bib
Do Automatic Annotation Techniques Have Any Impact on Supervised Complex Question Answering?
Yllias Chali | Sadid Hasan | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of the ACL-IJCNLP 2009 Conference Short Papers

2008

pdf bib
Improving the Performance of the Random Walk Model for Answering Complex Questions
Yllias Chali | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of ACL-08: HLT, Short Papers

pdf bib
Selecting Sentences for Answering Complex Questions
Yllias Chali | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

2007

pdf bib
UofL: Word Sense Disambiguation Using Lexical Cohesion
Yllias Chali | Shafiq R. Joty
Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Semantic Evaluations (SemEval-2007)

Search
Co-authors