Shashank Srivastava


2022

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Compositional Generalization for Kinship Prediction through Data Augmentation
Kangda Wei | Sayan Ghosh | Shashank Srivastava
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop of Narrative Understanding (WNU2022)

Transformer-based models have shown promising performance in numerous NLP tasks. However, recent work has shown the limitation of such models in showing compositional generalization, which requires models to generalize to novel compositions of known concepts. In this work, we explore two strategies for compositional generalization on the task of kinship prediction from stories, (1) data augmentation and (2) predicting and using intermediate structured representation (in form of kinship graphs). Our experiments show that data augmentation boosts generalization performance by around 20% on average relative to a baseline model from prior work not using these strategies. However, predicting and using intermediate kinship graphs leads to a deterioration in the generalization of kinship prediction by around 50% on average relative to models that only leverage data augmentation.

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ePiC: Employing Proverbs in Context as a Benchmark for Abstract Language Understanding
Sayan Ghosh | Shashank Srivastava
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

While large language models have shown exciting progress on several NLP benchmarks, evaluating their ability for complex analogical reasoning remains under-explored. Here, we introduce a high-quality crowdsourced dataset of narratives for employing proverbs in context as a benchmark for abstract language understanding. The dataset provides fine-grained annotation of aligned spans between proverbs and narratives, and contains minimal lexical overlaps between narratives and proverbs, ensuring that models need to go beyond surface-level reasoning to succeed. We explore three tasks: (1) proverb recommendation and alignment prediction, (2) narrative generation for a given proverb and topic, and (3) identifying narratives with similar motifs. Our experiments show that neural language models struggle on these tasks compared to humans, and these tasks pose multiple learning challenges.

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CLUES: A Benchmark for Learning Classifiers using Natural Language Explanations
Rakesh R. Menon | Sayan Ghosh | Shashank Srivastava
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Supervised learning has traditionally focused on inductive learning by observing labeled examples of a task. In contrast, a hallmark of human intelligence is the ability to learn new concepts purely from language. Here, we explore training zero-shot classifiers for structured data purely from language. For this, we introduce CLUES, a benchmark for Classifier Learning Using natural language ExplanationS, consisting of a range of classification tasks over structured data along with natural language supervision in the form of explanations. CLUES consists of 36 real-world and 144 synthetic classification tasks. It contains crowdsourced explanations describing real-world tasks from multiple teachers and programmatically generated explanations for the synthetic tasks. To model the influence of explanations in classifying an example, we develop ExEnt, an entailment-based model that learns classifiers using explanations. ExEnt generalizes up to 18% better (relative) on novel tasks than a baseline that does not use explanations. We delineate key challenges for automated learning from explanations, addressing which can lead to progress on CLUES in the future. Code and datasets are available at: https://clues-benchmark.github.io.

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Predicting Difficulty and Discrimination of Natural Language Questions
Matthew Byrd | Shashank Srivastava
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Item Response Theory (IRT) has been extensively used to numerically characterize question difficulty and discrimination for human subjects in domains including cognitive psychology and education (Primi et al., 2014; Downing, 2003). More recently, IRT has been used to similarly characterize item difficulty and discrimination for natural language models across various datasets (Lalor et al., 2019; Vania et al., 2021; Rodriguez et al., 2021). In this work, we explore predictive models for directly estimating and explaining these traits for natural language questions in a question-answering context. We use HotpotQA for illustration. Our experiments show that it is possible to predict both difficulty and discrimination parameters for new questions, and these traits are correlated with features of questions, answers, and associated contexts. Our findings can have significant implications for the creation of new datasets and tests on the one hand and strategies such as active learning and curriculum learning on the other.

2021

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How Helpful is Inverse Reinforcement Learning for Table-to-Text Generation?
Sayan Ghosh | Zheng Qi | Snigdha Chaturvedi | Shashank Srivastava
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Existing approaches for the Table-to-Text task suffer from issues such as missing information, hallucination and repetition. Many approaches to this problem use Reinforcement Learning (RL), which maximizes a single manually defined reward, such as BLEU. In this work, we instead pose the Table-to-Text task as Inverse Reinforcement Learning (IRL) problem. We explore using multiple interpretable unsupervised reward components that are combined linearly to form a composite reward function. The composite reward function and the description generator are learned jointly. We find that IRL outperforms strong RL baselines marginally. We further study the generalization of learned IRL rewards in scenarios involving domain adaptation. Our experiments reveal significant challenges in using IRL for this task.

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Mapping Language to Programs using Multiple Reward Components with Inverse Reinforcement Learning
Sayan Ghosh | Shashank Srivastava
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Mapping natural language instructions to programs that computers can process is a fundamental challenge. Existing approaches focus on likelihood-based training or using reinforcement learning to fine-tune models based on a single reward. In this paper, we pose program generation from language as Inverse Reinforcement Learning. We introduce several interpretable reward components and jointly learn (1) a reward function that linearly combines them, and (2) a policy for program generation. Fine-tuning with our approach achieves significantly better performance than competitive methods using Reinforcement Learning (RL). On the VirtualHome framework, we get improvements of up to 9.0% on the Longest Common Subsequence metric and 14.7% on recall-based metrics over previous work on this framework (Puig et al., 2018). The approach is data-efficient, showing larger gains in performance in the low-data regime. Generated programs are also preferred by human evaluators over an RL-based approach, and rated higher on relevance, completeness, and human-likeness.

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Adversarial Scrubbing of Demographic Information for Text Classification
Somnath Basu Roy Chowdhury | Sayan Ghosh | Yiyuan Li | Junier Oliva | Shashank Srivastava | Snigdha Chaturvedi
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Contextual representations learned by language models can often encode undesirable attributes, like demographic associations of the users, while being trained for an unrelated target task. We aim to scrub such undesirable attributes and learn fair representations while maintaining performance on the target task. In this paper, we present an adversarial learning framework “Adversarial Scrubber” (AdS), to debias contextual representations. We perform theoretical analysis to show that our framework converges without leaking demographic information under certain conditions. We extend previous evaluation techniques by evaluating debiasing performance using Minimum Description Length (MDL) probing. Experimental evaluations on 8 datasets show that AdS generates representations with minimal information about demographic attributes while being maximally informative about the target task.

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Improving and Simplifying Pattern Exploiting Training
Derek Tam | Rakesh R. Menon | Mohit Bansal | Shashank Srivastava | Colin Raffel
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recently, pre-trained language models (LMs) have achieved strong performance when fine-tuned on difficult benchmarks like SuperGLUE. However, performance can suffer when there are very few labeled examples available for fine-tuning. Pattern Exploiting Training (PET) is a recent approach that leverages patterns for few-shot learning. However, PET uses task-specific unlabeled data. In this paper, we focus on few-shot learning without any unlabeled data and introduce ADAPET, which modifies PET’s objective to provide denser supervision during fine-tuning. As a result, ADAPET outperforms PET on SuperGLUE without any task-specific unlabeled data.

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Does Social Pressure Drive Persuasion in Online Fora?
Ayush Jain | Shashank Srivastava
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Online forums such as ChangeMyView have been explored to research aspects of persuasion and argumentative quality in language. While previous research has focused on arguments between a view-holder and a persuader, we explore the premise that apart from the merits of arguments, persuasion is influenced by the ambient social community. We hypothesize that comments from the rest of the community can either affirm the original view or implicitly exert pressure to change it. We develop a structured model to capture the ambient community’s sentiment towards the discussion and its effect on persuasion. Our experiments show that social features themselves are significantly predictive of persuasion (even without looking at the actual content of discussion), with performance comparable to some earlier approaches that use content features. Combining community and content features leads to overall performance of 78.5% on the persuasion prediction task. Our analyses suggest that the effect of social pressure is comparable to the difference between persuasive and non-persuasive language strategies in driving persuasion and that social pressure might be a causal factor for persuasion.

2020

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PRover: Proof Generation for Interpretable Reasoning over Rules
Swarnadeep Saha | Sayan Ghosh | Shashank Srivastava | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Recent work by Clark et al. (2020) shows that transformers can act as “soft theorem provers” by answering questions over explicitly provided knowledge in natural language. In our work, we take a step closer to emulating formal theorem provers, by proposing PRover, an interpretable transformer-based model that jointly answers binary questions over rule-bases and generates the corresponding proofs. Our model learns to predict nodes and edges corresponding to proof graphs in an efficient constrained training paradigm. During inference, a valid proof, satisfying a set of global constraints is generated. We conduct experiments on synthetic, hand-authored, and human-paraphrased rule-bases to show promising results for QA and proof generation, with strong generalization performance. First, PRover generates proofs with an accuracy of 87%, while retaining or improving performance on the QA task, compared to RuleTakers (up to 6% improvement on zero-shot evaluation). Second, when trained on questions requiring lower depths of reasoning, it generalizes significantly better to higher depths (up to 15% improvement). Third, PRover obtains near perfect QA accuracy of 98% using only 40% of the training data. However, generating proofs for questions requiring higher depths of reasoning becomes challenging, and the accuracy drops to 65% for “depth 5”, indicating significant scope for future work.

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Learning Web-based Procedures by Reasoning over Explanations and Demonstrations in Context
Shashank Srivastava | Oleksandr Polozov | Nebojsa Jojic | Christopher Meek
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We explore learning web-based tasks from a human teacher through natural language explanations and a single demonstration. Our approach investigates a new direction for semantic parsing that models explaining a demonstration in a context, rather than mapping explanations to demonstrations. By leveraging the idea of inverse semantics from program synthesis to reason backwards from observed demonstrations, we ensure that all considered interpretations are consistent with executable actions in any context, thus simplifying the problem of search over logical forms. We present a dataset of explanations paired with demonstrations for web-based tasks. Our methods show better task completion rates than a supervised semantic parsing baseline (40% relative improvement on average), and are competitive with simple exploration-and-demonstration based methods, while requiring no exploration of the environment. In learning to align explanations with demonstrations, basic properties of natural language syntax emerge as learned behavior. This is an interesting example of pragmatic language acquisition without any linguistic annotation.

2019

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Learning to Ask for Conversational Machine Learning
Shashank Srivastava | Igor Labutov | Tom Mitchell
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Natural language has recently been explored as a new medium of supervision for training machine learning models. Here, we explore learning classification tasks using language in a conversational setting – where the automated learner does not simply receive language input from a teacher, but can proactively engage the teacher by asking questions. We present a reinforcement learning framework, where the learner’s actions correspond to question types and the reward for asking a question is based on how the teacher’s response changes performance of the resulting machine learning model on the learning task. In this framework, learning good question-asking strategies corresponds to asking sequences of questions that maximize the cumulative (discounted) reward, and hence quickly lead to effective classifiers. Empirical analysis across three domains shows that learned question-asking strategies expedite classifier training by asking appropriate questions at different points in the learning process. The approach allows learning classifiers from a blend of strategies, including learning from observations, explanations and clarifications.

2018

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Zero-shot Learning of Classifiers from Natural Language Quantification
Shashank Srivastava | Igor Labutov | Tom Mitchell
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Humans can efficiently learn new concepts using language. We present a framework through which a set of explanations of a concept can be used to learn a classifier without access to any labeled examples. We use semantic parsing to map explanations to probabilistic assertions grounded in latent class labels and observed attributes of unlabeled data, and leverage the differential semantics of linguistic quantifiers (e.g., ‘usually’ vs ‘always’) to drive model training. Experiments on three domains show that the learned classifiers outperform previous approaches for learning with limited data, and are comparable with fully supervised classifiers trained from a small number of labeled examples.

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A Spatial Model for Extracting and Visualizing Latent Discourse Structure in Text
Shashank Srivastava | Nebojsa Jojic
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We present a generative probabilistic model of documents as sequences of sentences, and show that inference in it can lead to extraction of long-range latent discourse structure from a collection of documents. The approach is based on embedding sequences of sentences from longer texts into a 2- or 3-D spatial grids, in which one or two coordinates model smooth topic transitions, while the third captures the sequential nature of the modeled text. A significant advantage of our approach is that the learned models are naturally visualizable and interpretable, as semantic similarity and sequential structure are modeled along orthogonal directions in the grid. We show that the method is effective in capturing discourse structures in narrative text across multiple genres, including biographies, stories, and newswire reports. In particular, our method outperforms or is competitive with state-of-the-art generative approaches on tasks such as predicting the outcome of a story, and sentence ordering.

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Where Have I Heard This Story Before? Identifying Narrative Similarity in Movie Remakes
Snigdha Chaturvedi | Shashank Srivastava | Dan Roth
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

People can identify correspondences between narratives in everyday life. For example, an analogy with the Cinderella story may be made in describing the unexpected success of an underdog in seemingly different stories. We present a new task and dataset for story understanding: identifying instances of similar narratives from a collection of narrative texts. We present an initial approach for this problem, which finds correspondences between narratives in terms of plot events, and resemblances between characters and their social relationships. Our approach yields an 8% absolute improvement in performance over a competitive information-retrieval baseline on a novel dataset of plot summaries of 577 movie remakes from Wikipedia.

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LIA: A Natural Language Programmable Personal Assistant
Igor Labutov | Shashank Srivastava | Tom Mitchell
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

We present LIA, an intelligent personal assistant that can be programmed using natural language. Our system demonstrates multiple competencies towards learning from human-like interactions. These include the ability to be taught reusable conditional procedures, the ability to be taught new knowledge about the world (concepts in an ontology) and the ability to be taught how to ground that knowledge in a set of sensors and effectors. Building such a system highlights design questions regarding the overall architecture that such an agent should have, as well as questions about parsing and grounding language in situational contexts. We outline key properties of this architecture, and demonstrate a prototype that embodies them in the form of a personal assistant on an Android device.

2017

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Joint Concept Learning and Semantic Parsing from Natural Language Explanations
Shashank Srivastava | Igor Labutov | Tom Mitchell
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Natural language constitutes a predominant medium for much of human learning and pedagogy. We consider the problem of concept learning from natural language explanations, and a small number of labeled examples of the concept. For example, in learning the concept of a phishing email, one might say ‘this is a phishing email because it asks for your bank account number’. Solving this problem involves both learning to interpret open ended natural language statements, and learning the concept itself. We present a joint model for (1) language interpretation (semantic parsing) and (2) concept learning (classification) that does not require labeling statements with logical forms. Instead, the model prefers discriminative interpretations of statements in context of observable features of the data as a weak signal for parsing. On a dataset of email-related concepts, our approach yields across-the-board improvements in classification performance, with a 30% relative improvement in F1 score over competitive methods in the low data regime.

2014

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Vector space semantics with frequency-driven motifs
Shashank Srivastava | Eduard Hovy
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2013

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A Walk-Based Semantically Enriched Tree Kernel Over Distributed Word Representations
Shashank Srivastava | Dirk Hovy | Eduard Hovy
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Identifying Metaphorical Word Use with Tree Kernels
Dirk Hovy | Shashank Srivastava | Sujay Kumar Jauhar | Mrinmaya Sachan | Kartik Goyal | Huying Li | Whitney Sanders | Eduard Hovy
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Metaphor in NLP

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A Structured Distributional Semantic Model : Integrating Structure with Semantics
Kartik Goyal | Sujay Kumar Jauhar | Huiying Li | Mrinmaya Sachan | Shashank Srivastava | Eduard Hovy
Proceedings of the Workshop on Continuous Vector Space Models and their Compositionality

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A Structured Distributional Semantic Model for Event Co-reference
Kartik Goyal | Sujay Kumar Jauhar | Huiying Li | Mrinmaya Sachan | Shashank Srivastava | Eduard Hovy
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)