Shinhyeok Oh


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Cross Encoding as Augmentation: Towards Effective Educational Text Classification
Hyun Seung Lee | Seungtaek Choi | Yunsung Lee | Hyeongdon Moon | Shinhyeok Oh | Myeongho Jeong | Hyojun Go | Christian Wallraven
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Text classification in education, usually called auto-tagging, is the automated process of assigning relevant tags to educational content, such as questions and textbooks. However, auto-tagging suffers from a data scarcity problem, which stems from two major challenges: 1) it possesses a large tag space and 2) it is multi-label. Though a retrieval approach is reportedly good at low-resource scenarios, there have been fewer efforts to directly address the data scarcity problem. To mitigate these issues, here we propose a novel retrieval approach CEAA that provides effective learning in educational text classification. Our main contributions are as follows: 1) we leverage transfer learning from question-answering datasets, and 2) we propose a simple but effective data augmentation method introducing cross-encoder style texts to a bi-encoder architecture for more efficient inference. An extensive set of experiments shows that our proposed method is effective in multi-label scenarios and low-resource tags compared to state-of-the-art models.

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Evaluation of Question Generation Needs More References
Shinhyeok Oh | Hyojun Go | Hyeongdon Moon | Yunsung Lee | Myeongho Jeong | Hyun Seung Lee | Seungtaek Choi
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Question generation (QG) is the task of generating a valid and fluent question based on a given context and the target answer. According to various purposes, even given the same context, instructors can ask questions about different concepts, and even the same concept can be written in different ways. However, the evaluation for QG usually depends on single reference-based similarity metrics, such as n-gram-based metric or learned metric, which is not sufficient to fully evaluate the potential of QG methods. To this end, we propose to paraphrase the reference question for a more robust QG evaluation. Using large language models such as GPT-3, we created semantically and syntactically diverse questions, then adopt the simple aggregation of the popular evaluation metrics as the final scores. Through our experiments, we found that using multiple (pseudo) references is more effective for QG evaluation while showing a higher correlation with human evaluations than evaluation with a single reference.


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Deep Context- and Relation-Aware Learning for Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis
Shinhyeok Oh | Dongyub Lee | Taesun Whang | IlNam Park | Seo Gaeun | EungGyun Kim | Harksoo Kim
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Existing works for aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) have adopted a unified approach, which allows the interactive relations among subtasks. However, we observe that these methods tend to predict polarities based on the literal meaning of aspect and opinion terms and mainly consider relations implicitly among subtasks at the word level. In addition, identifying multiple aspect–opinion pairs with their polarities is much more challenging. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of contextual information w.r.t. the aspect and opinion are further required in ABSA. In this paper, we propose Deep Contextualized Relation-Aware Network (DCRAN), which allows interactive relations among subtasks with deep contextual information based on two modules (i.e., Aspect and Opinion Propagation and Explicit Self-Supervised Strategies). Especially, we design novel self-supervised strategies for ABSA, which have strengths in dealing with multiple aspects. Experimental results show that DCRAN significantly outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods by large margins on three widely used benchmarks.

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Netmarble AI Center’s WMT21 Automatic Post-Editing Shared Task Submission
Shinhyeok Oh | Sion Jang | Hu Xu | Shounan An | Insoo Oh
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper describes Netmarble’s submission to WMT21 Automatic Post-Editing (APE) Shared Task for the English-German language pair. First, we propose a Curriculum Training Strategy in training stages. Facebook Fair’s WMT19 news translation model was chosen to engage the large and powerful pre-trained neural networks. Then, we post-train the translation model with different levels of data at each training stages. As the training stages go on, we make the system learn to solve multiple tasks by adding extra information at different training stages gradually. We also show a way to utilize the additional data in large volume for APE tasks. For further improvement, we apply Multi-Task Learning Strategy with the Dynamic Weight Average during the fine-tuning stage. To fine-tune the APE corpus with limited data, we add some related subtasks to learn a unified representation. Finally, for better performance, we leverage external translations as augmented machine translation (MT) during the post-training and fine-tuning. As experimental results show, our APE system significantly improves the translations of provided MT results by -2.848 and +3.74 on the development dataset in terms of TER and BLEU, respectively. It also demonstrates its effectiveness on the test dataset with higher quality than the development dataset.