In this paper, we propose a method to generate personalized filled pauses (FPs) with group-wise prediction models. Compared with fluent text generation, disfluent text generation has not been widely explored. To generate more human-like texts, we addressed disfluent text generation. The usage of disfluency, such as FPs, rephrases, and word fragments, differs from speaker to speaker, and thus, the generation of personalized FPs is required. However, it is difficult to predict them because of the sparsity of position and the frequency difference between more and less frequently used FPs. Moreover, it is sometimes difficult to adapt FP prediction models to each speaker because of the large variation of the tendency within each speaker. To address these issues, we propose a method to build group-dependent prediction models by grouping speakers on the basis of their tendency to use FPs. This method does not require a large amount of data and time to train each speaker model. We further introduce a loss function and a word embedding model suitable for FP prediction. Our experimental results demonstrate that group-dependent models can predict FPs with higher scores than a non-personalized one and the introduced loss function and word embedding model improve the prediction performance.
In this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of using rich annotations in deep neural network (DNN)-based statistical speech synthesis. DNN-based frameworks typically use linguistic information as input features called context instead of directly using text. In such frameworks, we can synthesize not only reading-style speech but also speech with paralinguistic and nonlinguistic features by adding such information to the context. However, it is not clear what kind of information is crucial for reproducing paralinguistic and nonlinguistic features. Therefore, we investigate the effectiveness of rich tags in DNN-based speech synthesis according to the Corpus of Spontaneous Japanese (CSJ), which has a large amount of annotations on paralinguistic features such as prosody, disfluency, and morphological features. Experimental evaluation results shows that the reproducibility of paralinguistic features of synthetic speech was enhanced by adding such information as context.
Developing a spontaneous speech corpus would be beneficial for spoken language processing and understanding. We present a speech corpus named the SMASH corpus, which includes spontaneous speech of two Japanese male commentators that made third-person audio commentaries during the gameplay of a fighting game. Each commentator ad-libbed while watching the gameplay with various topics covering not only explanations of each moment to convey the information on the fight but also comments to entertain listeners. We made transcriptions and topic tags as annotations on the recorded commentaries with our two-step method. We first made automatic and manual transcriptions of the commentaries and then manually annotated the topic tags. This paper describes how we constructed the SMASH corpus and reports some results of the annotations.
This paper is concerned with speech-to-speech translation that is sensitive to paralinguistic information. From the many different possible paralinguistic features to handle, in this paper we chose duration and power as a first step, proposing a method that can translate these features from input speech to the output speech in continuous space. This is done in a simple and language-independent fashion by training a regression model that maps source language duration and power information into the target language. We evaluate the proposed method on a digit translation task and show that paralinguistic information in input speech appears in output speech, and that this information can be used by target language speakers to detect emphasis.