Shirui Pan


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A Minimal Approach for Natural Language Action Space in Text-based Games
Dongwon Ryu | Meng Fang | Gholamreza Haffari | Shirui Pan | Ehsan Shareghi
Proceedings of the 27th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)

Text-based games (TGs) are language-based interactive environments for reinforcement learning. While language models (LMs) and knowledge graphs (KGs) are commonly used for handling large action space in TGs, it is unclear whether these techniques are necessary or overused. In this paper, we revisit the challenge of exploring the action space in TGs and propose 𝜖-admissible exploration, a minimal approach of utilizing admissible actions, for training phase. Additionally, we present a text-based actor-critic (TAC) agent that produces textual commands for game, solely from game observations, without requiring any KG or LM. Our method, on average across 10 games from Jericho, outperforms strong baselines and state-of-the-art agents that use LM and KG. Our approach highlights that a much lighter model design, with a fresh perspective on utilizing the information within the environments, suffices for an effective exploration of exponentially large action spaces.

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Shrinking Embeddings for Hyper-Relational Knowledge Graphs
Bo Xiong | Mojtaba Nayyeri | Shirui Pan | Steffen Staab
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Link prediction on knowledge graphs (KGs) has been extensively studied on binary relational KGs, wherein each fact is represented by a triple. A significant amount of important knowledge, however, is represented by hyper-relational facts where each fact is composed of a primal triple and a set of qualifiers comprising a key-value pair that allows for expressing more complicated semantics. Although some recent works have proposed to embed hyper-relational KGs, these methods fail to capture essential inference patterns of hyper-relational facts such as qualifier monotonicity, qualifier implication, and qualifier mutual exclusion, limiting their generalization capability. To unlock this, we present ShrinkE, a geometric hyper-relational KG embedding method aiming to explicitly model these patterns. ShrinkE models the primal triple as a spatial-functional transformation from the head into a relation-specific box. Each qualifier “shrinks” the box to narrow down the possible answer set and, thus, realizes qualifier monotonicity. The spatial relationships between the qualifier boxes allow for modeling core inference patterns of qualifiers such as implication and mutual exclusion. Experimental results demonstrate ShrinkE’s superiority on three benchmarks of hyper-relational KGs.


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Fire Burns, Sword Cuts: Commonsense Inductive Bias for Exploration in Text-based Games
Dongwon Ryu | Ehsan Shareghi | Meng Fang | Yunqiu Xu | Shirui Pan | Reza Haf
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Text-based games (TGs) are exciting testbeds for developing deep reinforcement learning techniques due to their partially observed environments and large action spaces. In these games, the agent learns to explore the environment via natural language interactions with the game simulator. A fundamental challenge in TGs is the efficient exploration of the large action space when the agent has not yet acquired enough knowledge about the environment. We propose CommExpl, an exploration technique that injects external commonsense knowledge, via a pretrained language model (LM), into the agent during training when the agent is the most uncertain about its next action. Our method exhibits improvement on the collected game scores during the training in four out of nine games from Jericho. Additionally, the produced trajectory of actions exhibit lower perplexity, when tested with a pretrained LM, indicating better closeness to human language.

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How Far are We from Robust Long Abstractive Summarization?
Huan Yee Koh | Jiaxin Ju | He Zhang | Ming Liu | Shirui Pan
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Abstractive summarization has made tremendous progress in recent years. In this work, we perform fine-grained human annotations to evaluate long document abstractive summarization systems (i.e., models and metrics) with the aim of implementing them to generate reliable summaries. For long document abstractive models, we show that the constant strive for state-of-the-art ROUGE results can lead us to generate more relevant summaries but not factual ones. For long document evaluation metrics, human evaluation results show that ROUGE remains the best at evaluating the relevancy of a summary. It also reveals important limitations of factuality metrics in detecting different types of factual errors and the reasons behind the effectiveness of BARTScore. We then suggest promising directions in the endeavor of developing factual consistency metrics. Finally, we release our annotated long document dataset with the hope that it can contribute to the development of metrics across a broader range of summarization settings.


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Medical Code Assignment with Gated Convolution and Note-Code Interaction
Shaoxiong Ji | Shirui Pan | Pekka Marttinen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Leveraging Information Bottleneck for Scientific Document Summarization
Jiaxin Ju | Ming Liu | Huan Yee Koh | Yuan Jin | Lan Du | Shirui Pan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

This paper presents an unsupervised extractive approach to summarize scientific long documents based on the Information Bottleneck principle. Inspired by previous work which uses the Information Bottleneck principle for sentence compression, we extend it to document level summarization with two separate steps. In the first step, we use signal(s) as queries to retrieve the key content from the source document. Then, a pre-trained language model conducts further sentence search and edit to return the final extracted summaries. Importantly, our work can be flexibly extended to a multi-view framework by different signals. Automatic evaluation on three scientific document datasets verifies the effectiveness of the proposed framework. The further human evaluation suggests that the extracted summaries cover more content aspects than previous systems.


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Monash-Summ@LongSumm 20 SciSummPip: An Unsupervised Scientific Paper Summarization Pipeline
Jiaxin Ju | Ming Liu | Longxiang Gao | Shirui Pan
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Scholarly Document Processing

The Scholarly Document Processing (SDP) workshop is to encourage more efforts on natural language understanding of scientific task. It contains three shared tasks and we participate in the LongSumm shared task. In this paper, we describe our text summarization system, SciSummPip, inspired by SummPip (Zhao et al., 2020) that is an unsupervised text summarization system for multi-document in News domain. Our SciSummPip includes a transformer-based language model SciBERT (Beltagy et al., 2019) for contextual sentence representation, content selection with PageRank (Page et al., 1999), sentence graph construction with both deep and linguistic information, sentence graph clustering and within-graph summary generation. Our work differs from previous method in that content selection and a summary length constraint is applied to adapt to the scientific domain. The experiment results on both training dataset and blind test dataset show the effectiveness of our method, and we empirically verify the robustness of modules used in SciSummPip with BERTScore (Zhang et al., 2019a).