Shivaen Ramshetty


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Cross-Modal Attribute Insertions for Assessing the Robustness of Vision-and-Language Learning
Shivaen Ramshetty | Gaurav Verma | Srijan Kumar
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The robustness of multimodal deep learning models to realistic changes in the input text is critical for applicability on important tasks such as text-to-image retrieval and cross-modal entailment. To measure robustness, several existing approaches edit the text data, but without leveraging the cross-modal information present in multimodal data. Such information from the visual modality, such as color, size, and shape, provides additional attributes that users can include in their inputs. Thus, we propose cross-modal attribute insertions as a realistic perturbation strategy for vision-and-language data that inserts visual attributes of the objects in the image into the corresponding text (e.g., “girl on a chair” to “little girl on a wooden chair”). Our proposed approach for cross-modal attribute insertions is modular, controllable, and task-agnostic. We find that augmenting input text using cross-modal insertions causes state-of-the-art approaches for text-to-image retrieval and cross-modal entailment to perform poorly, resulting in relative drops of ~15% in MRR and ~20% in F1 score, respectively. Crowd-sourced annotations demonstrate that cross-modal insertions lead to higher quality augmentations for multimodal data than augmentations using text-only data, and are equivalent in quality to original examples. We release the code to encourage robustness evaluations of deep vision-and-language models: