Shivam Mhaskar


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Multiple Pivot Languages and Strategic Decoder Initialization Helps Neural Machine Translation
Shivam Mhaskar | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Technologies for Machine Translation of Low-Resource Languages (LoResMT 2022)

In machine translation, a pivot language can be used to assist the source to target translation model. In pivot-based transfer learning, the source to pivot and the pivot to target models are used to improve the performance of the source to target model. This technique works best when both source-pivot and pivot-target are high resource language pairs and the source-target is a low resource language pair. But in some cases, such as Indic languages, the pivot to target language pair is not a high resource one. To overcome this limitation, we use multiple related languages as pivot languages to assist the source to target model. We show that using multiple pivot languages gives 2.03 BLEU and 3.05 chrF score improvement over the baseline model. We show that strategic decoder initialization while performing pivot-based transfer learning with multiple pivot languages gives a 3.67 BLEU and 5.94 chrF score improvement over the baseline model.


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Pivot Based Transfer Learning for Neural Machine Translation: CFILT IITB @ WMT 2021 Triangular MT
Shivam Mhaskar | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

In this paper, we discuss the various techniques that we used to implement the Russian-Chinese machine translation system for the Triangular MT task at WMT 2021. Neural Machine translation systems based on transformer architecture have an encoder-decoder architecture, which are trained end-to-end and require a large amount of parallel corpus to produce good quality translations. This is the reason why neural machine translation systems are referred to as data hungry. Such a large amount of parallel corpus is majorly available for language pairs which include English and not for non-English language pairs. This is a major problem in building neural machine translation systems for non-English language pairs. We try to utilize the resources of the English language to improve the translation of non-English language pairs. We use the pivot language, that is English, to leverage transfer learning to improve the quality of Russian-Chinese translation. Compared to the baseline transformer-based neural machine translation system, we observe that the pivot language-based transfer learning technique gives a higher BLEU score.

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Multilingual Machine Translation Systems at WAT 2021: One-to-Many and Many-to-One Transformer based NMT
Shivam Mhaskar | Aditya Jain | Aakash Banerjee | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Asian Translation (WAT2021)

In this paper, we present the details of the systems that we have submitted for the WAT 2021 MultiIndicMT: An Indic Language Multilingual Task. We have submitted two separate multilingual NMT models: one for English to 10 Indic languages and another for 10 Indic languages to English. We discuss the implementation details of two separate multilingual NMT approaches, namely one-to-many and many-to-one, that makes use of a shared decoder and a shared encoder, respectively. From our experiments, we observe that the multilingual NMT systems outperforms the bilingual baseline MT systems for each of the language pairs under consideration.

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Neural Machine Translation in Low-Resource Setting: a Case Study in English-Marathi Pair
Aakash Banerjee | Aditya Jain | Shivam Mhaskar | Sourabh Dattatray Deoghare | Aman Sehgal | Pushpak Bhattacharya
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit XVIII: Research Track

In this paper and we explore different techniques of overcoming the challenges of low-resource in Neural Machine Translation (NMT) and specifically focusing on the case of English-Marathi NMT. NMT systems require a large amount of parallel corpora to obtain good quality translations. We try to mitigate the low-resource problem by augmenting parallel corpora or by using transfer learning. Techniques such as Phrase Table Injection (PTI) and back-translation and mixing of language corpora are used for enhancing the parallel data; whereas pivoting and multilingual embeddings are used to leverage transfer learning. For pivoting and Hindi comes in as assisting language for English-Marathi translation. Compared to baseline transformer model and a significant improvement trend in BLEU score is observed across various techniques. We have done extensive manual and automatic and qualitative evaluation of our systems. Since the trend in Machine Translation (MT) today is post-editing and measuring of Human Effort Reduction (HER) and we have given our preliminary observations on Translation Edit Rate (TER) vs. BLEU score study and where TER is regarded as a measure of HER.

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Evaluating the Performance of Back-translation for Low Resource English-Marathi Language Pair: CFILT-IITBombay @ LoResMT 2021
Aditya Jain | Shivam Mhaskar | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Technologies for MT of Low Resource Languages (LoResMT2021)

In this paper, we discuss the details of the various Machine Translation (MT) systems that we have submitted for the English-Marathi LoResMT task. As a part of this task, we have submitted three different Neural Machine Translation (NMT) systems; a Baseline English-Marathi system, a Baseline Marathi-English system, and an English-Marathi system that is based on the back-translation technique. We explore the performance of these NMT systems between English and Marathi languages, which forms a low resource language pair due to unavailability of sufficient parallel data. We also explore the performance of the back-translation technique when the back-translated data is obtained from NMT systems that are trained on a very less amount of data. From our experiments, we observe that the back-translation technique can help improve the MT quality over the baseline for the English-Marathi language pair.