Shixiang Gu


pdf bib
Large Language Models Can Self-Improve
Jiaxin Huang | Shixiang Gu | Le Hou | Yuexin Wu | Xuezhi Wang | Hongkun Yu | Jiawei Han
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Large Language Models (LLMs) have achieved excellent performances in various tasks. However, fine-tuning an LLM requires extensive supervision. Human, on the other hand, may improve their reasoning abilities by self-thinking without external inputs. In this work, we demonstrate that an LLM is also capable of self-improving with only unlabeled datasets. We use a pre-trained LLM to generate “high-confidence” rationale-augmented answers for unlabeled questions using Chain-of-Though (CoT) prompting and self-consistency, and fine-tune the LLM using those self-generated solutions as target outputs. We show that without any ground truth label, our approach improves the general reasoning ability of a 540B-parameter LLM (74.4%82.1% on GSM8K, 90.0%94.4% on OpenBookQA, and 63.4%67.9% on ANLI-A3) and can also be adapted to extreme low-resource cases where even training questions and CoT prompts are limited. We conduct ablation studies and show that fine-tuning on diverse reasoning paths is critical for self-improvement.


pdf bib
Human-centric dialog training via offline reinforcement learning
Natasha Jaques | Judy Hanwen Shen | Asma Ghandeharioun | Craig Ferguson | Agata Lapedriza | Noah Jones | Shixiang Gu | Rosalind Picard
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

How can we train a dialog model to produce better conversations by learning from human feedback, without the risk of humans teaching it harmful chat behaviors? We start by hosting models online, and gather human feedback from real-time, open-ended conversations, which we then use to train and improve the models using offline reinforcement learning (RL). We identify implicit conversational cues including language similarity, elicitation of laughter, sentiment, and more, which indicate positive human feedback, and embed these in multiple reward functions. A well-known challenge is that learning an RL policy in an offline setting usually fails due to the lack of ability to explore and the tendency to make over-optimistic estimates of future reward. These problems become even harder when using RL for language models, which can easily have a 20,000 action vocabulary and many possible reward functions. We solve the challenge by developing a novel class of offline RL algorithms. These algorithms use KL-control to penalize divergence from a pre-trained prior language model, and use a new strategy to make the algorithm pessimistic, instead of optimistic, in the face of uncertainty. We test the resulting dialog model with ratings from 80 users in an open-domain setting and find it achieves significant improvements over existing deep offline RL approaches. The novel offline RL method is viable for improving any existing generative dialog model using a static dataset of human feedback.