Shiyu Chang


2022

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Query and Extract: Refining Event Extraction as Type-oriented Binary Decoding
Sijia Wang | Mo Yu | Shiyu Chang | Lichao Sun | Lifu Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Event extraction is typically modeled as a multi-class classification problem where event types and argument roles are treated as atomic symbols. These approaches are usually limited to a set of pre-defined types. We propose a novel event extraction framework that uses event types and argument roles as natural language queries to extract candidate triggers and arguments from the input text. With the rich semantics in the queries, our framework benefits from the attention mechanisms to better capture the semantic correlation between the event types or argument roles and the input text. Furthermore, the query-and-extract formulation allows our approach to leverage all available event annotations from various ontologies as a unified model. Experiments on ACE and ERE demonstrate that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on each dataset and significantly outperforms existing methods on zero-shot event extraction.

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Incremental Prompting: Episodic Memory Prompt for Lifelong Event Detection
Minqian Liu | Shiyu Chang | Lifu Huang
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Lifelong event detection aims to incrementally update a model with new event types and data while retaining the capability on previously learned old types. One critical challenge is that the model would catastrophically forget old types when continually trained on new data. In this paper, we introduce Episodic Memory Prompts (EMP) to explicitly retain the learned task-specific knowledge. Our method adopts continuous prompt for each task and they are optimized to instruct the model prediction and learn event-specific representation. The EMPs learned in previous tasks are carried along with the model in subsequent tasks, and can serve as a memory module that keeps the old knowledge and transferring to new tasks. Experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. Furthermore, we also conduct a comprehensive analysis of the new and old event types in lifelong learning.

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DiffCSE: Difference-based Contrastive Learning for Sentence Embeddings
Yung-Sung Chuang | Rumen Dangovski | Hongyin Luo | Yang Zhang | Shiyu Chang | Marin Soljacic | Shang-Wen Li | Scott Yih | Yoon Kim | James Glass
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

We propose DiffCSE, an unsupervised contrastive learning framework for learning sentence embeddings. DiffCSE learns sentence embeddings that are sensitive to the difference between the original sentence and an edited sentence, where the edited sentence is obtained by stochastically masking out the original sentence and then sampling from a masked language model. We show that DiffSCE is an instance of equivariant contrastive learning, which generalizes contrastive learning and learns representations that are insensitive to certain types of augmentations and sensitive to other “harmful” types of augmentations. Our experiments show that DiffCSE achieves state-of-the-art results among unsupervised sentence representation learning methods, outperforming unsupervised SimCSE by 2.3 absolute points on semantic textual similarity tasks.

2021

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Complementary Evidence Identification in Open-Domain Question Answering
Xiangyang Mou | Mo Yu | Shiyu Chang | Yufei Feng | Li Zhang | Hui Su
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

This paper proposes a new problem of complementary evidence identification for open-domain question answering (QA). The problem aims to efficiently find a small set of passages that covers full evidence from multiple aspects as to answer a complex question. To this end, we proposes a method that learns vector representations of passages and models the sufficiency and diversity within the selected set, in addition to the relevance between the question and passages. Our experiments demonstrate that our method considers the dependence within the supporting evidence and significantly improves the accuracy of complementary evidence selection in QA domain.

2020

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Interactive Fiction Game Playing as Multi-Paragraph Reading Comprehension with Reinforcement Learning
Xiaoxiao Guo | Mo Yu | Yupeng Gao | Chuang Gan | Murray Campbell | Shiyu Chang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Interactive Fiction (IF) games with real human-written natural language texts provide a new natural evaluation for language understanding techniques. In contrast to previous text games with mostly synthetic texts, IF games pose language understanding challenges on the human-written textual descriptions of diverse and sophisticated game worlds and language generation challenges on the action command generation from less restricted combinatorial space. We take a novel perspective of IF game solving and re-formulate it as Multi-Passage Reading Comprehension (MPRC) tasks. Our approaches utilize the context-query attention mechanisms and the structured prediction in MPRC to efficiently generate and evaluate action outputs and apply an object-centric historical observation retrieval strategy to mitigate the partial observability of the textual observations. Extensive experiments on the recent IF benchmark (Jericho) demonstrate clear advantages of our approaches achieving high winning rates and low data requirements compared to all previous approaches.

2019

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Out-of-Domain Detection for Low-Resource Text Classification Tasks
Ming Tan | Yang Yu | Haoyu Wang | Dakuo Wang | Saloni Potdar | Shiyu Chang | Mo Yu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Out-of-domain (OOD) detection for low-resource text classification is a realistic but understudied task. The goal is to detect the OOD cases with limited in-domain (ID) training data, since in machine learning applications we observe that training data is often insufficient. In this work, we propose an OOD-resistant Prototypical Network to tackle this zero-shot OOD detection and few-shot ID classification task. Evaluations on real-world datasets show that the proposed solution outperforms state-of-the-art methods in zero-shot OOD detection task, while maintaining a competitive performance on ID classification task.

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Rethinking Cooperative Rationalization: Introspective Extraction and Complement Control
Mo Yu | Shiyu Chang | Yang Zhang | Tommi Jaakkola
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Selective rationalization has become a common mechanism to ensure that predictive models reveal how they use any available features. The selection may be soft or hard, and identifies a subset of input features relevant for prediction. The setup can be viewed as a co-operate game between the selector (aka rationale generator) and the predictor making use of only the selected features. The co-operative setting may, however, be compromised for two reasons. First, the generator typically has no direct access to the outcome it aims to justify, resulting in poor performance. Second, there’s typically no control exerted on the information left outside the selection. We revise the overall co-operative framework to address these challenges. We introduce an introspective model which explicitly predicts and incorporates the outcome into the selection process. Moreover, we explicitly control the rationale complement via an adversary so as not to leave any useful information out of the selection. We show that the two complementary mechanisms maintain both high predictive accuracy and lead to comprehensive rationales.

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Context-Aware Conversation Thread Detection in Multi-Party Chat
Ming Tan | Dakuo Wang | Yupeng Gao | Haoyu Wang | Saloni Potdar | Xiaoxiao Guo | Shiyu Chang | Mo Yu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

In multi-party chat, it is common for multiple conversations to occur concurrently, leading to intermingled conversation threads in chat logs. In this work, we propose a novel Context-Aware Thread Detection (CATD) model that automatically disentangles these conversation threads. We evaluate our model on four real-world datasets and demonstrate an overall im-provement in thread detection accuracy over state-of-the-art benchmarks.

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Simple yet Effective Bridge Reasoning for Open-Domain Multi-Hop Question Answering
Wenhan Xiong | Mo Yu | Xiaoxiao Guo | Hong Wang | Shiyu Chang | Murray Campbell | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Machine Reading for Question Answering

A key challenge of multi-hop question answering (QA) in the open-domain setting is to accurately retrieve the supporting passages from a large corpus. Existing work on open-domain QA typically relies on off-the-shelf information retrieval (IR) techniques to retrieve answer passages, i.e., the passages containing the groundtruth answers. However, IR-based approaches are insufficient for multi-hop questions, as the topic of the second or further hops is not explicitly covered by the question. To resolve this issue, we introduce a new subproblem of open-domain multi-hop QA, which aims to recognize the bridge (i.e., the anchor that links to the answer passage) from the context of a set of start passages with a reading comprehension model. This model, the bridge reasoner, is trained with a weakly supervised signal and produces the candidate answer passages for the passage reader to extract the answer. On the full-wiki HotpotQA benchmark, we significantly improve the baseline method by 14 point F1. Without using any memory inefficient contextual embeddings, our result is also competitive with the state-of-the-art that applies BERT in multiple modules.

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Imposing Label-Relational Inductive Bias for Extremely Fine-Grained Entity Typing
Wenhan Xiong | Jiawei Wu | Deren Lei | Mo Yu | Shiyu Chang | Xiaoxiao Guo | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Existing entity typing systems usually exploit the type hierarchy provided by knowledge base (KB) schema to model label correlations and thus improve the overall performance. Such techniques, however, are not directly applicable to more open and practical scenarios where the type set is not restricted by KB schema and includes a vast number of free-form types. To model the underlying label correlations without access to manually annotated label structures, we introduce a novel label-relational inductive bias, represented by a graph propagation layer that effectively encodes both global label co-occurrence statistics and word-level similarities. On a large dataset with over 10,000 free-form types, the graph-enhanced model equipped with an attention-based matching module is able to achieve a much higher recall score while maintaining a high-level precision. Specifically, it achieves a 15.3% relative F1 improvement and also less inconsistency in the outputs. We further show that a simple modification of our proposed graph layer can also improve the performance on a conventional and widely-tested dataset that only includes KB-schema types.

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Sentence Embedding Alignment for Lifelong Relation Extraction
Hong Wang | Wenhan Xiong | Mo Yu | Xiaoxiao Guo | Shiyu Chang | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Conventional approaches to relation extraction usually require a fixed set of pre-defined relations. Such requirement is hard to meet in many real applications, especially when new data and relations are emerging incessantly and it is computationally expensive to store all data and re-train the whole model every time new data and relations come in. We formulate such challenging problem as lifelong relation extraction and investigate memory-efficient incremental learning methods without catastrophically forgetting knowledge learned from previous tasks. We first investigate a modified version of the stochastic gradient methods with a replay memory, which surprisingly outperforms recent state-of-the-art lifelong learning methods. We further propose to improve this approach to alleviate the forgetting problem by anchoring the sentence embedding space. Specifically, we utilize an explicit alignment model to mitigate the sentence embedding distortion of learned model when training on new data and new relations. Experiment results on multiple benchmarks show that our proposed method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art lifelong learning approaches.

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Extracting Multiple-Relations in One-Pass with Pre-Trained Transformers
Haoyu Wang | Ming Tan | Mo Yu | Shiyu Chang | Dakuo Wang | Kun Xu | Xiaoxiao Guo | Saloni Potdar
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Many approaches to extract multiple relations from a paragraph require multiple passes over the paragraph. In practice, multiple passes are computationally expensive and this makes difficult to scale to longer paragraphs and larger text corpora. In this work, we focus on the task of multiple relation extractions by encoding the paragraph only once. We build our solution upon the pre-trained self-attentive models (Transformer), where we first add a structured prediction layer to handle extraction between multiple entity pairs, then enhance the paragraph embedding to capture multiple relational information associated with each entity with entity-aware attention. We show that our approach is not only scalable but can also perform state-of-the-art on the standard benchmark ACE 2005.

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Self-Supervised Learning for Contextualized Extractive Summarization
Hong Wang | Xin Wang | Wenhan Xiong | Mo Yu | Xiaoxiao Guo | Shiyu Chang | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Existing models for extractive summarization are usually trained from scratch with a cross-entropy loss, which does not explicitly capture the global context at the document level. In this paper, we aim to improve this task by introducing three auxiliary pre-training tasks that learn to capture the document-level context in a self-supervised fashion. Experiments on the widely-used CNN/DM dataset validate the effectiveness of the proposed auxiliary tasks. Furthermore, we show that after pre-training, a clean model with simple building blocks is able to outperform previous state-of-the-art that are carefully designed.

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Improving Question Answering over Incomplete KBs with Knowledge-Aware Reader
Wenhan Xiong | Mo Yu | Shiyu Chang | Xiaoxiao Guo | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We propose a new end-to-end question answering model, which learns to aggregate answer evidence from an incomplete knowledge base (KB) and a set of retrieved text snippets.Under the assumptions that structured data is easier to query and the acquired knowledge can help the understanding of unstructured text, our model first accumulates knowledge ofKB entities from a question-related KB sub-graph; then reformulates the question in the latent space and reads the text with the accumulated entity knowledge at hand. The evidence from KB and text are finally aggregated to predict answers. On the widely-used KBQA benchmark WebQSP, our model achieves consistent improvements across settings with different extents of KB incompleteness.

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Selection Bias Explorations and Debias Methods for Natural Language Sentence Matching Datasets
Guanhua Zhang | Bing Bai | Jian Liang | Kun Bai | Shiyu Chang | Mo Yu | Conghui Zhu | Tiejun Zhao
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Natural Language Sentence Matching (NLSM) has gained substantial attention from both academics and the industry, and rich public datasets contribute a lot to this process. However, biased datasets can also hurt the generalization performance of trained models and give untrustworthy evaluation results. For many NLSM datasets, the providers select some pairs of sentences into the datasets, and this sampling procedure can easily bring unintended pattern, i.e., selection bias. One example is the QuoraQP dataset, where some content-independent naive features are unreasonably predictive. Such features are the reflection of the selection bias and termed as the “leakage features.” In this paper, we investigate the problem of selection bias on six NLSM datasets and find that four out of them are significantly biased. We further propose a training and evaluation framework to alleviate the bias. Experimental results on QuoraQP suggest that the proposed framework can improve the generalization ability of trained models, and give more trustworthy evaluation results for real-world adoptions.

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TWEETQA: A Social Media Focused Question Answering Dataset
Wenhan Xiong | Jiawei Wu | Hong Wang | Vivek Kulkarni | Mo Yu | Shiyu Chang | Xiaoxiao Guo | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

With social media becoming increasingly popular on which lots of news and real-time events are reported, developing automated question answering systems is critical to the effective-ness of many applications that rely on real-time knowledge. While previous datasets have concentrated on question answering (QA) for formal text like news and Wikipedia, we present the first large-scale dataset for QA over social media data. To ensure that the tweets we collected are useful, we only gather tweets used by journalists to write news articles. We then ask human annotators to write questions and answers upon these tweets. Unlike otherQA datasets like SQuAD in which the answers are extractive, we allow the answers to be abstractive. We show that two recently proposed neural models that perform well on formal texts are limited in their performance when applied to our dataset. In addition, even the fine-tuned BERT model is still lagging behind human performance with a large margin. Our results thus point to the need of improved QA systems targeting social media text.

2018

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Improving Reinforcement Learning Based Image Captioning with Natural Language Prior
Tszhang Guo | Shiyu Chang | Mo Yu | Kun Bai
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recently, Reinforcement Learning (RL) approaches have demonstrated advanced performance in image captioning by directly optimizing the metric used for testing. However, this shaped reward introduces learning biases, which reduces the readability of generated text. In addition, the large sample space makes training unstable and slow.To alleviate these issues, we propose a simple coherent solution that constrains the action space using an n-gram language prior. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations on benchmarks show that RL with the simple add-on module performs favorably against its counterpart in terms of both readability and speed of convergence. Human evaluation results show that our model is more human readable and graceful. The implementation will become publicly available upon the acceptance of the paper.

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Deriving Machine Attention from Human Rationales
Yujia Bao | Shiyu Chang | Mo Yu | Regina Barzilay
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Attention-based models are successful when trained on large amounts of data. In this paper, we demonstrate that even in the low-resource scenario, attention can be learned effectively. To this end, we start with discrete human-annotated rationales and map them into continuous attention. Our central hypothesis is that this mapping is general across domains, and thus can be transferred from resource-rich domains to low-resource ones. Our model jointly learns a domain-invariant representation and induces the desired mapping between rationales and attention. Our empirical results validate this hypothesis and show that our approach delivers significant gains over state-of-the-art baselines, yielding over 15% average error reduction on benchmark datasets.

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One-Shot Relational Learning for Knowledge Graphs
Wenhan Xiong | Mo Yu | Shiyu Chang | Xiaoxiao Guo | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Knowledge graphs (KG) are the key components of various natural language processing applications. To further expand KGs’ coverage, previous studies on knowledge graph completion usually require a large number of positive examples for each relation. However, we observe long-tail relations are actually more common in KGs and those newly added relations often do not have many known triples for training. In this work, we aim at predicting new facts under a challenging setting where only one training instance is available. We propose a one-shot relational learning framework, which utilizes the knowledge distilled by embedding models and learns a matching metric by considering both the learned embeddings and one-hop graph structures. Empirically, our model yields considerable performance improvements over existing embedding models, and also eliminates the need of re-training the embedding models when dealing with newly added relations.

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A Co-Matching Model for Multi-choice Reading Comprehension
Shuohang Wang | Mo Yu | Jing Jiang | Shiyu Chang
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Multi-choice reading comprehension is a challenging task, which involves the matching between a passage and a question-answer pair. This paper proposes a new co-matching approach to this problem, which jointly models whether a passage can match both a question and a candidate answer. Experimental results on the RACE dataset demonstrate that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance.

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Diverse Few-Shot Text Classification with Multiple Metrics
Mo Yu | Xiaoxiao Guo | Jinfeng Yi | Shiyu Chang | Saloni Potdar | Yu Cheng | Gerald Tesauro | Haoyu Wang | Bowen Zhou
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

We study few-shot learning in natural language domains. Compared to many existing works that apply either metric-based or optimization-based meta-learning to image domain with low inter-task variance, we consider a more realistic setting, where tasks are diverse. However, it imposes tremendous difficulties to existing state-of-the-art metric-based algorithms since a single metric is insufficient to capture complex task variations in natural language domain. To alleviate the problem, we propose an adaptive metric learning approach that automatically determines the best weighted combination from a set of metrics obtained from meta-training tasks for a newly seen few-shot task. Extensive quantitative evaluations on real-world sentiment analysis and dialog intent classification datasets demonstrate that the proposed method performs favorably against state-of-the-art few shot learning algorithms in terms of predictive accuracy. We make our code and data available for further study.