Shizhe Diao


pdf bib
ConstraintChecker: A Plugin for Large Language Models to Reason on Commonsense Knowledge Bases
Quyet V. Do | Tianqing Fang | Shizhe Diao | Zhaowei Wang | Yangqiu Song
Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Reasoning over Commonsense Knowledge Bases (CSKB), i.e. CSKB reasoning, has been explored as a way to acquire new commonsense knowledge based on reference knowledge in the original CSKBs and external prior knowledge.Despite the advancement of Large Language Models (LLM) and prompt engineering techniques in various reasoning tasks, they still struggle to deal with CSKB reasoning.One of the problems is that it is hard for them to acquire explicit relational constraints in CSKBs from only in-context exemplars, due to a lack of symbolic reasoning capabilities (CITATION).To this end, we proposed **ConstraintChecker**, a plugin over prompting techniques to provide and check explicit constraints.When considering a new knowledge instance, ConstraintChecker employs a rule-based module to produce a list of constraints, then it uses a zero-shot learning module to check whether this knowledge instance satisfies all constraints.The acquired constraint-checking result is then aggregated with the output of the main prompting technique to produce the final output.Experimental results on CSKB Reasoning benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by bringing consistent improvements over all prompting methods.


pdf bib
On the Difference of BERT-style and CLIP-style Text Encoders
Zhihong Chen | Guiming Chen | Shizhe Diao | Xiang Wan | Benyou Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Masked language modeling (MLM) has been one of the most popular pretraining recipes in natural language processing, e.g., BERT, one of the representative models. Recently, contrastive language-image pretraining (CLIP) has also attracted attention, especially its vision models that achieve excellent performance on a broad range of vision tasks. However, few studies are dedicated to studying the text encoders learned by CLIP. In this paper, we analyze the difference between BERT-style and CLIP-style text encoders from three experiments: (i) general text understanding, (ii) vision-centric text understanding, and (iii) text-to-image generation. Experimental analyses show that although CLIP-style text encoders underperform BERT-style ones for general text understanding tasks, they are equipped with a unique ability, i.e., synesthesia, for the cross-modal association, which is more similar to the senses of humans.

pdf bib
Automatic Prompt Augmentation and Selection with Chain-of-Thought from Labeled Data
Kashun Shum | Shizhe Diao | Tong Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Chain-of-thought (CoT) advances the reasoning abilities of large language models (LLMs) and achieves superior performance in complex reasoning tasks. However, most CoT studies rely on carefully designed human-annotated rational chains to prompt LLMs, posing challenges for real-world applications where labeled data is available without rational chains. This paper proposes a new strategy, AutomateCoT (Automatic Prompt Augmentation and Selection with Chain-of-Thought), that can bypass human engineering of CoT by automatically augmenting rational chains from a small labeled dataset, and then pruning low-quality chains to construct a candidate pool of machinegenerated rationale chains based on the labels. Finally, it selects the optimal combination of several rationale chains from the pool for CoT prompting by employing a variance-reduced policy gradient strategy to estimate the significance of each example. Automate-CoT enables a quick adaptation of the CoT technique to different tasks. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, where competitive results are achieved on arithmetic reasoning (+2.7%), commonsense reasoning (+3.4%), symbolic reasoning (+3.2%), and non-reasoning tasks (+2.5%).

pdf bib
Doolittle: Benchmarks and Corpora for Academic Writing Formalization
Shizhe Diao | Yongyu Lei | Liangming Pan | Tianqing Fang | Wangchunshu Zhou | Sedrick Keh | Min-Yen Kan | Tong Zhang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Improving the quality of academic writing is a meaningful but challenging task. Conventional methods of language refinement focus on narrow, specific linguistic features within isolated sentences, such as grammatical errors and improper word use. We propose a more general task, Academic Writing Formalization (AWF), to improve the overall quality of formal academic writing at the paragraph level. We formulate this language refinement task as a formal text style transfer task which transfers informal-academic text to formal-academic and contribute a large-scale non-parallel dataset, Doolittle, for this purpose. Concurrently, we apply a method named metric-oriented reinforcement learning (MORL) to two large language models (LLM) where we incorporate different levels of automatic feedback into the training process. Our experiments reveal that existing text transfer models and grammatical error correction models address certain aspects of AWF but still have a significant performance gap compared to human performance. Meanwhile, language models fine-tuned with our MORL method exhibit considerably improved performance, rivaling the latest chatbot ChatGPT, but still have a non-negligible gap compared to the ground truth formal-academic texts in Doolittle.

pdf bib
DetGPT: Detect What You Need via Reasoning
Renjie Pi | Jiahui Gao | Shizhe Diao | Rui Pan | Hanze Dong | Jipeng Zhang | Lewei Yao | Jianhua Han | Hang Xu | Lingpeng Kong | Tong Zhang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In recent years, the field of computer vision has seen significant advancements thanks to the development of large language models (LLMs). These models have enabled more effective and sophisticated interactions between humans and machines, paving the way for novel techniques that blur the lines between human and machine intelligence. In this paper, we introduce a new paradigm for object detection that we call reasoning-based object detection. Unlike conventional object detection methods that rely on specific object names, our approach enables users to interact with the system using natural language instructions, allowing for a higher level of interactivity. Our proposed method, called DetGPT, leverages state-of-the-art multi-modal models and open-vocabulary object detectors to perform reasoning within the context of the user’s instructions and the visual scene. This enables DetGPT to automatically locate the object of interest based on the user’s expressed desires, even if the object is not explicitly mentioned. For instance, if a user expresses a desire for a cold beverage, DetGPT can analyze the image, identify a fridge, and use its knowledge of typical fridge contents to locate the beverage. This flexibility makes our system applicable across a wide range of fields, from robotics and automation to autonomous driving. Overall, our proposed paradigm and DetGPT demonstrate the potential for more sophisticated and intuitive interactions between humans and machines. We hope that our proposed paradigm and approach will provide inspiration to the community and open the door to more interactive and versatile object detection systems.

pdf bib
Mixture-of-Domain-Adapters: Decoupling and Injecting Domain Knowledge to Pre-trained Language Models’ Memories
Shizhe Diao | Tianyang Xu | Ruijia Xu | Jiawei Wang | Tong Zhang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Pre-trained language models (PLMs) demonstrate excellent abilities to understand texts in the generic domain while struggling in a specific domain. Although continued pre-training on a large domain-specific corpus is effective, it is costly to tune all the parameters on the domain. In this paper, we investigate whether we can adapt PLMs both effectively and efficiently by only tuning a few parameters. Specifically, we decouple the feed-forward networks (FFNs) of the Transformer architecture into two parts: the original pre-trained FFNs to maintain the old-domain knowledge and our novel domain-specific adapters to inject domain-specific knowledge in parallel. Then we adopt a mixture-of-adapters gate to fuse the knowledge from different domain adapters dynamically. Our proposed Mixture-of-Domain-Adapters (MixDA) employs a two-stage adapter-tuning strategy that leverages both unlabeled data and labeled data to help the domain adaptation: i) domain-specific adapter on unlabeled data; followed by ii) the task-specific adapter on labeled data. MixDA can be seamlessly plugged into the pretraining-finetuning paradigm and our experiments demonstrate that MixDA achieves superior performance on in-domain tasks (GLUE), out-of-domain tasks (ChemProt, RCT, IMDB, Amazon), and knowledge-intensive tasks (KILT).Further analyses demonstrate the reliability, scalability, and efficiency of our method.


pdf bib
TILGAN: Transformer-based Implicit Latent GAN for Diverse and Coherent Text Generation
Shizhe Diao | Xinwei Shen | Kashun Shum | Yan Song | Tong Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

pdf bib
Taming Pre-trained Language Models with N-gram Representations for Low-Resource Domain Adaptation
Shizhe Diao | Ruijia Xu | Hongjin Su | Yilei Jiang | Yan Song | Tong Zhang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Large pre-trained models such as BERT are known to improve different downstream NLP tasks, even when such a model is trained on a generic domain. Moreover, recent studies have shown that when large domain-specific corpora are available, continued pre-training on domain-specific data can further improve the performance of in-domain tasks. However, this practice requires significant domain-specific data and computational resources which may not always be available. In this paper, we aim to adapt a generic pretrained model with a relatively small amount of domain-specific data. We demonstrate that by explicitly incorporating multi-granularity information of unseen and domain-specific words via the adaptation of (word based) n-grams, the performance of a generic pretrained model can be greatly improved. Specifically, we introduce a Transformer-based Domain-aware N-gram Adaptor, T-DNA, to effectively learn and incorporate the semantic representation of different combinations of words in the new domain. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of T-DNA on eight low-resource downstream tasks from four domains. We show that T-DNA is able to achieve significant improvements compared to existing methods on most tasks using limited data with lower computational costs. Moreover, further analyses demonstrate the importance and effectiveness of both unseen words and the information of different granularities. Our code is available at


pdf bib
ZEN: Pre-training Chinese Text Encoder Enhanced by N-gram Representations
Shizhe Diao | Jiaxin Bai | Yan Song | Tong Zhang | Yonggang Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

The pre-training of text encoders normally processes text as a sequence of tokens corresponding to small text units, such as word pieces in English and characters in Chinese. It omits information carried by larger text granularity, and thus the encoders cannot easily adapt to certain combinations of characters. This leads to a loss of important semantic information, which is especially problematic for Chinese because the language does not have explicit word boundaries. In this paper, we propose ZEN, a BERT-based Chinese text encoder enhanced by n-gram representations, where different combinations of characters are considered during training, thus potential word or phrase boundaries are explicitly pre-trained and fine-tuned with the character encoder (BERT). Therefore ZEN incorporates the comprehensive information of both the character sequence and words or phrases it contains. Experimental results illustrated the effectiveness of ZEN on a series of Chinese NLP tasks, where state-of-the-art results is achieved on most tasks with requiring less resource than other published encoders. It is also shown that reasonable performance is obtained when ZEN is trained on a small corpus, which is important for applying pre-training techniques to scenarios with limited data. The code and pre-trained models of ZEN are available at