Shuang Zeng


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SANTA: Separate Strategies for Inaccurate and Incomplete Annotation Noise in Distantly-Supervised Named Entity Recognition
Shuzheng Si | Zefan Cai | Shuang Zeng | Guoqiang Feng | Jiaxing Lin | Baobao Chang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Distantly-Supervised Named Entity Recognition effectively alleviates the burden of time-consuming and expensive annotation in the supervised setting. But the context-free matching process and the limited coverage of knowledge bases introduce inaccurate and incomplete annotation noise respectively. Previous studies either considered only incomplete one or indiscriminately handle two types of noise with the same strategy. In this paper, we argue that the different causes of two types of noise bring up the requirement of different strategies in model architecture. Therefore, we propose the SANTA to handle these two types of noise separately with (1) Memory-smoothed Focal Loss and Entity-aware KNN to relieve the entity ambiguity problem caused by inaccurate annotation, and (2) Boundary Mixup to alleviate decision boundary shifting problem caused by incomplete annotation and a noise-tolerant loss to improve the model’s robustness. Benefiting from our separate tailored strategies, we confirm in the experiment that the two types of noise are well mitigated.SANTA also achieves a new state-of-the-art on five public datasets.


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Mining Clues from Incomplete Utterance: A Query-enhanced Network for Incomplete Utterance Rewriting
Shuzheng Si | Shuang Zeng | Baobao Chang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Incomplete utterance rewriting has recently raised wide attention. However, previous works do not consider the semantic structural information between incomplete utterance and rewritten utterance or model the semantic structure implicitly and insufficiently. To address this problem, we propose a QUEry-Enhanced Network(QUEEN) to solve this problem. Firstly, our proposed query template explicitly brings guided semantic structural knowledge between the incomplete utterance and the rewritten utterance making model perceive where to refer back to or recover omitted tokens. Then, we adopt a fast and effective edit operation scoring network to model the relation between two tokens. Benefiting from extra information and the well-designed network, QUEEN achieves state-of-the-art performance on several public datasets.

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A Two-Stream AMR-enhanced Model for Document-level Event Argument Extraction
Runxin Xu | Peiyi Wang | Tianyu Liu | Shuang Zeng | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Most previous studies aim at extracting events from a single sentence, while document-level event extraction still remains under-explored. In this paper, we focus on extracting event arguments from an entire document, which mainly faces two critical problems: a) the long-distance dependency between trigger and arguments over sentences; b) the distracting context towards an event in the document. To address these issues, we propose a Two-Stream Abstract meaning Representation enhanced extraction model (TSAR). TSAR encodes the document from different perspectives by a two-stream encoding module, to utilize local and global information and lower the impact of distracting context. Besides, TSAR introduces an AMR-guided interaction module to capture both intra-sentential and inter-sentential features, based on the locally and globally constructed AMR semantic graphs. An auxiliary boundary loss is introduced to enhance the boundary information for text spans explicitly. Extensive experiments illustrate that TSAR outperforms previous state-of-the-art by a large margin, with 2.54 F1 and 5.13 F1 performance gain on the public RAMS and WikiEvents datasets respectively, showing the superiority in the cross-sentence arguments extraction. We release our code in

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SCL-RAI: Span-based Contrastive Learning with Retrieval Augmented Inference for Unlabeled Entity Problem in NER
Shuzheng Si | Shuang Zeng | Jiaxing Lin | Baobao Chang
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Unlabeled Entity Problem (UEP) in Named Entity Recognition (NER) datasets seriously hinders the improvement of NER performance. This paper proposes SCL-RAI to cope with this problem. Firstly, we decrease the distance of span representations with the same label while increasing it for different ones via span-based contrastive learning, which relieves the ambiguity among entities and improves the robustness of the model over unlabeled entities. Then we propose retrieval augmented inference to mitigate the decision boundary shifting problem. Our method significantly outperforms the previous SOTA method by 4.21% and 8.64% F1-score on two real-world datasets.

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Type-enriched Hierarchical Contrastive Strategy for Fine-Grained Entity Typing
Xinyu Zuo | Haijin Liang | Ning Jing | Shuang Zeng | Zhou Fang | Yu Luo
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Fine-grained entity typing (FET) aims to deduce specific semantic types of the entity mentions in the text. Modern methods for FET mainly focus on learning what a certain type looks like. And few works directly model the type differences, that is, let models know the extent that which one type is different from others. To alleviate this problem, we propose a type-enriched hierarchical contrastive strategy for FET. Our method can directly model the differences between hierarchical types and improve the ability to distinguish multi-grained similar types. On the one hand, we embed type into entity contexts to make type information directly perceptible. On the other hand, we design a constrained contrastive strategy on the hierarchical structure to directly model the type differences, which can simultaneously perceive the distinguishability between types at different granularity. Experimental results on three benchmarks, BBN, OntoNotes, and FIGER show that our method achieves significant performance on FET by effectively modeling type differences.

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DISK: Domain-constrained Instance Sketch for Math Word Problem Generation
Tianyang Cao | Shuang Zeng | Xiaodan Xu | Mairgup Mansur | Baobao Chang
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

A math word problem (MWP) is a coherent narrative which reflects the underlying logic of math equations. Successful MWP generation can automate the writing of mathematics questions. Previous methods mainly generate MWP text based on inflexible pre-defined templates. In this paper, we propose a neural model for generating MWP text from math equations. Firstly, we incorporate a matching model conditioned on the domain knowledge to retrieve a MWP instance which is most consistent with the ground-truth, where the domain is a latent variable extracted with a domain summarizer. Secondly, by constructing a Quantity Cell Graph (QCG) from the retrieved MWP instance and reasoning over it, we improve the model’s comprehension of real-world scenarios and derive a domain-constrained instance sketch to guide the generation. Besides, the QCG also interacts with the equation encoder to enhance the alignment between math tokens (e.g., quantities and variables) and MWP text. Experiments and empirical analysis on educational MWP set show that our model achieves impressive performance in both automatic evaluation metrics and human evaluation metrics.


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SIRE: Separate Intra- and Inter-sentential Reasoning for Document-level Relation Extraction
Shuang Zeng | Yuting Wu | Baobao Chang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021


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Evaluating Text Coherence at Sentence and Paragraph Levels
Sennan Liu | Shuang Zeng | Sujian Li
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

In this paper, to evaluate text coherence, we propose the paragraph ordering task as well as conducting sentence ordering. We collected four distinct corpora from different domains on which we investigate the adaptation of existing sentence ordering methods to a paragraph ordering task. We also compare the learnability and robustness of existing models by artificially creating mini datasets and noisy datasets respectively and verifying the efficiency of established models under these circumstances. Furthermore, we carry out human evaluation on the rearranged passages from two competitive models and confirm that WLCS-l is a better metric performing significantly higher correlations with human rating than τ , the most prevalent metric used before. Results from these evaluations show that except for certain extreme conditions, the recurrent graph neural network-based model is an optimal choice for coherence modeling.

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Double Graph Based Reasoning for Document-level Relation Extraction
Shuang Zeng | Runxin Xu | Baobao Chang | Lei Li
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Document-level relation extraction aims to extract relations among entities within a document. Different from sentence-level relation extraction, it requires reasoning over multiple sentences across paragraphs. In this paper, we propose Graph Aggregation-and-Inference Network (GAIN), a method to recognize such relations for long paragraphs. GAIN constructs two graphs, a heterogeneous mention-level graph (MG) and an entity-level graph (EG). The former captures complex interaction among different mentions and the latter aggregates mentions underlying for the same entities. Based on the graphs we propose a novel path reasoning mechanism to infer relations between entities. Experiments on the public dataset, DocRED, show GAIN achieves a significant performance improvement (2.85 on F1) over the previous state-of-the-art. Our code is available at