Shuangtao Li


pdf bib
Learning to Compose Representations of Different Encoder Layers towards Improving Compositional Generalization
Lei Lin | Shuangtao Li | Yafang Zheng | Biao Fu | Shan Liu | Yidong Chen | Xiaodong Shi
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Recent studies have shown that sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) models struggle with compositional generalization (CG), i.e., the ability to systematically generalize to unseen compositions of seen components. There is mounting evidence that one of the reasons hindering CG is the representation of the encoder uppermost layer is entangled, i.e., the syntactic and semantic representations of sequences are entangled. However, we consider that the previously identified representation entanglement problem is not comprehensive enough. Additionally, we hypothesize that the source keys and values representations passing into different decoder layers are also entangled. Starting from this intuition, we propose CompoSition (Compose Syntactic and Semantic Representations), an extension to seq2seq models which learns to compose representations of different encoder layers dynamically for different tasks, since recent studies reveal that the bottom layers of the Transformer encoder contain more syntactic information and the top ones contain more semantic information. Specifically, we introduce a composed layer between the encoder and decoder to compose different encoder layers’ representations to generate specific keys and values passing into different decoder layers. CompoSition achieves competitive results on two comprehensive and realistic benchmarks, which empirically demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposal. Codes are available at


pdf bib
XMU’s Simultaneous Translation System at NAACL 2021
Shuangtao Li | Jinming Hu | Boli Wang | Xiaodong Shi | Yidong Chen
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Automatic Simultaneous Translation

This paper describes our two systems submitted to the simultaneous translation evaluation at the 2nd automatic simultaneous translation workshop.