The objective of a Question-Answering system over Knowledge Graph (KGQA) is to respond to natural language queries presented over the KG. A complex question answering system typically addresses one of the two categories of complexity: questions with constraints and questions involving multiple hops of relations. Most of the previous works have addressed these complexities separately. Multi-hop KGQA necessitates reasoning across numerous edges of the KG in order to arrive at the correct answer. Because KGs are frequently sparse, multi-hop KGQA presents extra complications. Recent works have developed KG embedding approaches to reduce KG sparsity by performing missing link prediction. In this paper, we tried to address multi-hop constrained-based queries using KG embeddings to generate more flexible query graphs. Empirical results indicate that the proposed methodology produces state-of-the-art outcomes on three KGQA datasets.
Building conversation agents requires a large amount of manual effort in creating training data for intents / entities as well as mapping out extensive conversation flows. In this demonstration, we present ICM (Intent and conversation Mining), a tool which can be used to analyze existing conversation logs and help a bot designer analyze customer intents, train a custom intent model as well as map and optimize conversation flows. The tool can be used for first time deployment or subsequent deployments of chatbots.
Movies reflect society and also hold power to transform opinions. Social biases and stereotypes present in movies can cause extensive damage due to their reach. These biases are not always found to be the need of storyline but can creep in as the author’s bias. Movie production houses would prefer to ascertain that the bias present in a script is the story’s demand. Today, when deep learning models can give human-level accuracy in multiple tasks, having an AI solution to identify the biases present in the script at the writing stage can help them avoid the inconvenience of stalled release, lawsuits, etc. Since AI solutions are data intensive and there exists no domain specific data to address the problem of biases in scripts, we introduce a new dataset of movie scripts that are annotated for identity bias. The dataset contains dialogue turns annotated for (i) bias labels for seven categories, viz., gender, race/ethnicity, religion, age, occupation, LGBTQ, and other, which contains biases like body shaming, personality bias, etc. (ii) labels for sensitivity, stereotype, sentiment, emotion, emotion intensity, (iii) all labels annotated with context awareness, (iv) target groups and reason for bias labels and (v) expert-driven group-validation process for high quality annotations. We also report various baseline performances for bias identification and category detection on our dataset.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the spread of misinformation on online social media has grown exponentially. Unverified bogus claims on these platforms regularly mislead people, leading them to believe in half-baked truths. The current vogue is to employ manual fact-checkers to verify claims to combat this avalanche of misinformation. However, establishing such claims’ veracity is becoming increasingly challenging, partly due to the plethora of information available, which is difficult to process manually. Thus, it becomes imperative to verify claims automatically without human interventions. To cope up with this issue, we propose an automated claim verification solution encompassing two steps – document retrieval and veracity prediction. For the retrieval module, we employ a hybrid search-based system with BM25 as a base retriever and experiment with recent state-of-the-art transformer-based models for re-ranking. Furthermore, we use a BART-based textual entailment architecture to authenticate the retrieved documents in the later step. We report experimental findings, demonstrating that our retrieval module outperforms the best baseline system by 10.32 NDCG@100 points. We escort a demonstration to assess the efficacy and impact of our suggested solution. As a byproduct of this study, we present an open-source, easily deployable, and user-friendly Python API that the community can adopt.
Task-oriented conversational agents are gaining immense popularity and success in a wide range of tasks, from flight ticket booking to online shopping. However, the existing systems presume that end-users will always have a pre-determined and servable task goal, which results in dialogue failure in hostile scenarios, such as goal unavailability. On the other hand, human agents accomplish users’ tasks even in a large number of goal unavailability scenarios by persuading them towards a very similar and servable goal. Motivated by the limitation, we propose and build a novel end-to-end multi-modal persuasive dialogue system incorporated with a personalized persuasive module aided goal controller and goal persuader. The goal controller recognizes goal conflicting/unavailability scenarios and formulates a new goal, while the goal persuader persuades users using a personalized persuasive strategy identified through dialogue context. We also present a novel automatic evaluation metric called Persuasiveness Measurement Rate (PMeR) for quantifying the persuasive capability of a conversational agent. The obtained improvements (both quantitative and qualitative) firmly establish the superiority and need of the proposed context-guided, personalized persuasive virtual agent over existing traditional task-oriented virtual agents. Furthermore, we also curated a multi-modal persuasive conversational dialogue corpus annotated with intent, slot, sentiment, and dialogue act for e-commerce domain.
One characteristic that makes humans superior to modern artificially intelligent models is the ability to interpret images beyond what is visually apparent. Consider the following two natural language search queries – (i) “a queue of customers patiently waiting to buy ice cream” and (ii) “a queue of tourists going to see a famous Mughal architecture in India”. Interpreting these queries requires one to reason with (i) Commonsense such as interpreting people as customers or tourists, actions as waiting to buy or going to see; and (ii) Fact or world knowledge associated with named visual entities, for example, whether the store in the image sells ice cream or whether the landmark in the image is a Mughal architecture located in India. Such reasoning goes beyond just visual recognition. To enable both commonsense and factual reasoning in the image search, we present a unified framework namely Knowledge Retrieval-Augmented Multimodal Transformer (KRAMT) that treats the named visual entities in an image as a gateway to encyclopedic knowledge and leverages them along with natural language query to ground relevant knowledge. Further, KRAMT seamlessly integrates visual content and grounded knowledge to learn alignment between images and search queries. This unified framework is then used to perform image search requiring commonsense and factual reasoning. The retrieval performance of KRAMT is evaluated and compared with related approaches on a new dataset we introduce – namely COFAR.
Modelling and understanding dialogues in a conversation depends on identifying the user intent from the given text. Unknown or new intent detection is a critical task, as in a realistic scenario a user intent may frequently change over time and divert even to an intent previously not encountered. This task of separating the unknown intent samples from known intents one is challenging as the unknown user intent can range from intents similar to the predefined intents to something completely different. Prior research on intent discovery often consider it as a classification task where an unknown intent can belong to a predefined set of known intent classes. In this paper we tackle the problem of detecting a completely unknown intent without any prior hints about the kind of classes belonging to unknown intents. We propose an effective post-processing method using multi-objective optimization to tune an existing neural network based intent classifier and make it capable of detecting unknown intents. We perform experiments using existing state-of-the-art intent classifiers and use our method on top of them for unknown intent detection. Our experiments across different domains and real-world datasets show that our method yields significant improvements compared with the state-of-the-art methods for unknown intent detection.
Conversational systems are of primary interest in the AI community. Organizations are increasingly using chatbot to provide round-the-clock support and to increase customer engagement. Many commercial bot building frameworks follow a standard approach that requires one to build and train an intent model to recognize user input. These frameworks require a collection of user utterances and corresponding intent to train an intent model. Collecting a substantial coverage of training data is a bottleneck in the bot building process. In cases where past conversation data is available, the cost of labeling hundreds of utterances with intent labels is time-consuming and laborious. In this paper, we present an intent discovery framework that can mine a vast amount of conversational logs and to generate labeled data sets for training intent models. We have introduced an extension to the DBSCAN algorithm and presented a density-based clustering algorithm ITER-DBSCAN for unbalanced data clustering. Empirical evaluation on one conversation dataset, six different intent dataset, and one short text clustering dataset show the effectiveness of our hypothesis.
In this paper, we propose a hybrid technique for semantic question matching. It uses a proposed two-layered taxonomy for English questions by augmenting state-of-the-art deep learning models with question classes obtained from a deep learning based question classifier. Experiments performed on three open-domain datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach. We achieve state-of-the-art results on partial ordering question ranking (POQR) benchmark dataset. Our empirical analysis shows that coupling standard distributional features (provided by the question encoder) with knowledge from taxonomy is more effective than either deep learning or taxonomy-based knowledge alone.