Motivated by the success of T5 (Text-To-Text Transfer Transformer) in pre-trained natural language processing models, we propose a unified-modal SpeechT5 framework that explores the encoder-decoder pre-training for self-supervised speech/text representation learning. The SpeechT5 framework consists of a shared encoder-decoder network and six modal-specific (speech/text) pre/post-nets. After preprocessing the input speech/text through the pre-nets, the shared encoder-decoder network models the sequence-to-sequence transformation, and then the post-nets generate the output in the speech/text modality based on the output of the decoder. Leveraging large-scale unlabeled speech and text data, we pre-train SpeechT5 to learn a unified-modal representation, hoping to improve the modeling capability for both speech and text. To align the textual and speech information into this unified semantic space, we propose a cross-modal vector quantization approach that randomly mixes up speech/text states with latent units as the interface between encoder and decoder. Extensive evaluations show the superiority of the proposed SpeechT5 framework on a wide variety of spoken language processing tasks, including automatic speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, voice conversion, speech enhancement, and speaker identification.
Bilingual lexicon induction induces the word translations by aligning independently trained word embeddings in two languages. Existing approaches generally focus on minimizing the distances between words in the aligned pairs, while suffering from low discriminative capability to distinguish the relative orders between positive and negative candidates. In addition, the mapping function is globally shared by all words, whose performance might be hindered by the deviations in the distributions of different languages. In this work, we propose a novel ranking-oriented induction model RAPO to learn personalized mapping function for each word. RAPO is capable of enjoying the merits from the unique characteristics of a single word and the cross-language isomorphism simultaneously. Extensive experimental results on public datasets including both rich-resource and low-resource languages demonstrate the superiority of our proposal. Our code is publicly available in https://github.com/Jlfj345wf/RAPO.
Though some recent works focus on injecting sentiment knowledge into pre-trained language models, they usually design mask and reconstruction tasks in the post-training phase. This paper aims to integrate sentiment knowledge in the fine-tuning stage. To achieve this goal, we propose two sentiment-aware auxiliary tasks named sentiment word selection and conditional sentiment prediction and, correspondingly, integrate them into the objective of the downstream task. The first task learns to select the correct sentiment words from the given options. The second task predicts the overall sentiment polarity, with the sentiment polarity of the word given as prior knowledge. In addition, two label combination methods are investigated to unify multiple types of labels in each auxiliary task. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach consistently outperforms baselines (achieving a new state-of-the-art) and is complementary to existing sentiment-enhanced post-trained models.
While pre-training techniques are working very well in natural language processing, how to pre-train a decoder and effectively use it for neural machine translation (NMT) still remains a tricky issue. The main reason is that the cross-attention module between the encoder and decoder cannot be pre-trained, and the combined encoder-decoder model cannot work well in the fine-tuning stage because the inputs of the decoder cross-attention come from unknown encoder outputs. In this paper, we propose a better pre-training method for NMT by defining a semantic interface (SemFace) between the pre-trained encoder and the pre-trained decoder. Specifically, we propose two types of semantic interfaces, including CL-SemFace which regards cross-lingual embeddings as an interface, and VQ-SemFace which employs vector quantized embeddings to constrain the encoder outputs and decoder inputs in the same language-independent space. We conduct massive experiments on six supervised translation pairs and three unsupervised pairs. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed SemFace can effectively connect the pre-trained encoder and decoder, and achieves significant improvement by 3.7 and 1.5 BLEU points on the two tasks respectively compared with previous pre-training-based NMT models.
Unsupervised bilingual lexicon induction is the task of inducing word translations from monolingual corpora of two languages. Recent methods are mostly based on unsupervised cross-lingual word embeddings, the key to which is to find initial solutions of word translations, followed by the learning and refinement of mappings between the embedding spaces of two languages. However, previous methods find initial solutions just based on word-level information, which may be (1) limited and inaccurate, and (2) prone to contain some noise introduced by the insufficiently pre-trained embeddings of some words. To deal with those issues, in this paper, we propose a novel graph-based paradigm to induce bilingual lexicons in a coarse-to-fine way. We first build a graph for each language with its vertices representing different words. Then we extract word cliques from the graphs and map the cliques of two languages. Based on that, we induce the initial word translation solution with the central words of the aligned cliques. This coarse-to-fine approach not only leverages clique-level information, which is richer and more accurate, but also effectively reduces the bad effect of the noise in the pre-trained embeddings. Finally, we take the initial solution as the seed to learn cross-lingual embeddings, from which we induce bilingual lexicons. Experiments show that our approach improves the performance of bilingual lexicon induction compared with previous methods.
The commonly used framework for unsupervised machine translation builds initial translation models of both translation directions, and then performs iterative back-translation to jointly boost their translation performance. The initialization stage is very important since bad initialization may wrongly squeeze the search space, and too much noise introduced in this stage may hurt the final performance. In this paper, we propose a novel retrieval and rewriting based method to better initialize unsupervised translation models. We first retrieve semantically comparable sentences from monolingual corpora of two languages and then rewrite the target side to minimize the semantic gap between the source and retrieved targets with a designed rewriting model. The rewritten sentence pairs are used to initialize SMT models which are used to generate pseudo data for two NMT models, followed by the iterative back-translation. Experiments show that our method can build better initial unsupervised translation models and improve the final translation performance by over 4 BLEU scores. Our code is released at https://github.com/Imagist-Shuo/RRforUNMT.git.
Pre-training has proven to be effective in unsupervised machine translation due to its ability to model deep context information in cross-lingual scenarios. However, the cross-lingual information obtained from shared BPE spaces is inexplicit and limited. In this paper, we propose a novel cross-lingual pre-training method for unsupervised machine translation by incorporating explicit cross-lingual training signals. Specifically, we first calculate cross-lingual n-gram embeddings and infer an n-gram translation table from them. With those n-gram translation pairs, we propose a new pre-training model called Cross-lingual Masked Language Model (CMLM), which randomly chooses source n-grams in the input text stream and predicts their translation candidates at each time step. Experiments show that our method can incorporate beneficial cross-lingual information into pre-trained models. Taking pre-trained CMLM models as the encoder and decoder, we significantly improve the performance of unsupervised machine translation.
Neural Machine Translation (NMT) performs poor on the low-resource language pair (X,Z), especially when Z is a rare language. By introducing another rich language Y, we propose a novel triangular training architecture (TA-NMT) to leverage bilingual data (Y,Z) (may be small) and (X,Y) (can be rich) to improve the translation performance of low-resource pairs. In this triangular architecture, Z is taken as the intermediate latent variable, and translation models of Z are jointly optimized with an unified bidirectional EM algorithm under the goal of maximizing the translation likelihood of (X,Y). Empirical results demonstrate that our method significantly improves the translation quality of rare languages on MultiUN and IWSLT2012 datasets, and achieves even better performance combining back-translation methods.
In order to alleviate data sparsity and overfitting problems in maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) for sequence prediction tasks, we propose the Generative Bridging Network (GBN), in which a novel bridge module is introduced to assist the training of the sequence prediction model (the generator network). Unlike MLE directly maximizing the conditional likelihood, the bridge extends the point-wise ground truth to a bridge distribution conditioned on it, and the generator is optimized to minimize their KL-divergence. Three different GBNs, namely uniform GBN, language-model GBN and coaching GBN, are proposed to penalize confidence, enhance language smoothness and relieve learning burden. Experiments conducted on two recognized sequence prediction tasks (machine translation and abstractive text summarization) show that our proposed GBNs can yield significant improvements over strong baselines. Furthermore, by analyzing samples drawn from different bridges, expected influences on the generator are verified.