Shuo Wang


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Explainable Recommendation with Personalized Review Retrieval and Aspect Learning
Hao Cheng | Shuo Wang | Wensheng Lu | Wei Zhang | Mingyang Zhou | Kezhong Lu | Hao Liao
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Explainable recommendation is a technique that combines prediction and generation tasks to produce more persuasive results. Among these tasks, textual generation demands large amounts of data to achieve satisfactory accuracy. However, historical user reviews of items are often insufficient, making it challenging to ensure the precision of generated explanation text. To address this issue, we propose a novel model, ERRA (Explainable Recommendation by personalized Review retrieval and Aspect learning). With retrieval enhancement, ERRA can obtain additional information from the training sets. With this additional information, we can generate more accurate and informative explanations. Furthermore, to better capture users’ preferences, we incorporate an aspect enhancement component into our model. By selecting the top-n aspects that users are most concerned about for different items, we can model user representation with more relevant details, making the explanation more persuasive. To verify the effectiveness of our model, extensive experiments on three datasets show that our model outperforms state-of-the-art baselines (for example, 3.4% improvement in prediction and 15.8% improvement in explanation for TripAdvisor).

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TemplateGEC: Improving Grammatical Error Correction with Detection Template
Yinghao Li | Xuebo Liu | Shuo Wang | Peiyuan Gong | Derek F. Wong | Yang Gao | Heyan Huang | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Grammatical error correction (GEC) can be divided into sequence-to-edit (Seq2Edit) and sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) frameworks, both of which have their pros and cons. To utilize the strengths and make up for the shortcomings of these frameworks, this paper proposes a novel method, TemplateGEC, which capitalizes on the capabilities of both Seq2Edit and Seq2Seq frameworks in error detection and correction respectively. TemplateGEC utilizes the detection labels from a Seq2Edit model, to construct the template as the input. A Seq2Seq model is employed to enforce consistency between the predictions of different templates by utilizing consistency learning. Experimental results on the Chinese NLPCC18, English BEA19 and CoNLL14 benchmarks show the effectiveness and robustness of TemplateGEC.Further analysis reveals the potential of our method in performing human-in-the-loop GEC. Source code and scripts are available at

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Transferable and Efficient: Unifying Dynamic Multi-Domain Product Categorization
Shansan Gong | Zelin Zhou | Shuo Wang | Fengjiao Chen | Xiujie Song | Xuezhi Cao | Yunsen Xian | Kenny Zhu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 5: Industry Track)

As e-commerce platforms develop different business lines, a special but challenging product categorization scenario emerges, where there are multiple domain-specific category taxonomies and each of them evolves dynamically over time. In order to unify the categorization process and ensure efficiency, we propose a two-stage taxonomy-agnostic framework that relies solely on calculating the semantic relatedness between product titles and category names in the vector space. To further enhance domain transferability and better exploit cross-domain data, we design two plug-in modules: a heuristic mapping scorer and a pretrained contrastive ranking module with the help of meta concepts, which represent keyword knowledge shared across domains. Comprehensive offline experiments show that our method outperforms strong baselineson three dynamic multi-domain product categorization (DMPC) tasks,and online experiments reconfirm its efficacy with a5% increase on seasonal purchase revenue. Related datasets will be released.


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MSP: Multi-Stage Prompting for Making Pre-trained Language Models Better Translators
Zhixing Tan | Xiangwen Zhang | Shuo Wang | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Prompting has recently been shown as a promising approach for applying pre-trained language models to perform downstream tasks. We present Multi-Stage Prompting, a simple and automatic approach for leveraging pre-trained language models to translation tasks. To better mitigate the discrepancy between pre-training and translation, MSP divides the translation process via pre-trained language models into three separate stages: the encoding stage, the re-encoding stage, and the decoding stage. During each stage, we independently apply different continuous prompts for allowing pre-trained language models better shift to translation tasks. We conduct extensive experiments on three translation tasks. Experiments show that our method can significantly improve the translation performance of pre-trained language models.

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Integrating Vectorized Lexical Constraints for Neural Machine Translation
Shuo Wang | Zhixing Tan | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Lexically constrained neural machine translation (NMT), which controls the generation of NMT models with pre-specified constraints, is important in many practical scenarios. Due to the representation gap between discrete constraints and continuous vectors in NMT models, most existing works choose to construct synthetic data or modify the decoding algorithm to impose lexical constraints, treating the NMT model as a black box. In this work, we propose to open this black box by directly integrating the constraints into NMT models. Specifically, we vectorize source and target constraints into continuous keys and values, which can be utilized by the attention modules of NMT models. The proposed integration method is based on the assumption that the correspondence between keys and values in attention modules is naturally suitable for modeling constraint pairs. Experimental results show that our method consistently outperforms several representative baselines on four language pairs, demonstrating the superiority of integrating vectorized lexical constraints.

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A Template-based Method for Constrained Neural Machine Translation
Shuo Wang | Peng Li | Zhixing Tan | Zhaopeng Tu | Maosong Sun | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Machine translation systems are expected to cope with various types of constraints in many practical scenarios. While neural machine translation (NMT) has achieved strong performance in unconstrained cases, it is non-trivial to impose pre-specified constraints into the translation process of NMT models. Although many approaches have been proposed to address this issue, most existing methods can not satisfy the following three desiderata at the same time: (1) high translation quality, (2) high match accuracy, and (3) low latency. In this work, we propose a template-based method that can yield results with high translation quality and match accuracy and the inference speed of our method is comparable with unconstrained NMT models. Our basic idea is to rearrange the generation of constrained and unconstrained tokens through a template. Our method does not require any changes in the model architecture and the decoding algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed template-based approach can outperform several representative baselines in both lexically and structurally constrained translation tasks.


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On the Language Coverage Bias for Neural Machine Translation
Shuo Wang | Zhaopeng Tu | Zhixing Tan | Shuming Shi | Maosong Sun | Yang Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021


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On the Inference Calibration of Neural Machine Translation
Shuo Wang | Zhaopeng Tu | Shuming Shi | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Confidence calibration, which aims to make model predictions equal to the true correctness measures, is important for neural machine translation (NMT) because it is able to offer useful indicators of translation errors in the generated output. While prior studies have shown that NMT models trained with label smoothing are well-calibrated on the ground-truth training data, we find that miscalibration still remains a severe challenge for NMT during inference due to the discrepancy between training and inference. By carefully designing experiments on three language pairs, our work provides in-depth analyses of the correlation between calibration and translation performance as well as linguistic properties of miscalibration and reports a number of interesting findings that might help humans better analyze, understand and improve NMT models. Based on these observations, we further propose a new graduated label smoothing method that can improve both inference calibration and translation performance.

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THUMT: An Open-Source Toolkit for Neural Machine Translation
Zhixing Tan | Jiacheng Zhang | Xuancheng Huang | Gang Chen | Shuo Wang | Maosong Sun | Huanbo Luan | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 14th Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas (Volume 1: Research Track)


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Improving Back-Translation with Uncertainty-based Confidence Estimation
Shuo Wang | Yang Liu | Chao Wang | Huanbo Luan | Maosong Sun
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

While back-translation is simple and effective in exploiting abundant monolingual corpora to improve low-resource neural machine translation (NMT), the synthetic bilingual corpora generated by NMT models trained on limited authentic bilingual data are inevitably noisy. In this work, we propose to quantify the confidence of NMT model predictions based on model uncertainty. With word- and sentence-level confidence measures based on uncertainty, it is possible for back-translation to better cope with noise in synthetic bilingual corpora. Experiments on Chinese-English and English-German translation tasks show that uncertainty-based confidence estimation significantly improves the performance of back-translation.


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ScholarGraph:a Chinese Knowledge Graph of Chinese Scholars
Shuo Wang | Zehui Hao | Xiaofeng Meng | Qiuyue Wang
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)