Simon See


pdf bib
Self-Consistent Narrative Prompts on Abductive Natural Language Inference
Chunkit Chan | Xin Liu | Tsz Ho Chan | Jiayang Cheng | Yangqiu Song | Ginny Wong | Simon See
Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing and the 3rd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

pdf bib
TILFA: A Unified Framework for Text, Image, and Layout Fusion in Argument Mining
Qing Zong | Zhaowei Wang | Baixuan Xu | Tianshi Zheng | Haochen Shi | Weiqi Wang | Yangqiu Song | Ginny Wong | Simon See
Proceedings of the 10th Workshop on Argument Mining

A main goal of Argument Mining (AM) is to analyze an author’s stance. Unlike previous AM datasets focusing only on text, the shared task at the 10th Workshop on Argument Mining introduces a dataset including both texts and images. Importantly, these images contain both visual elements and optical characters. Our new framework, TILFA (A Unified Framework for Text, Image, and Layout Fusion in Argument Mining), is designed to handle this mixed data. It excels at not only understanding text but also detecting optical characters and recognizing layout details in images. Our model significantly outperforms existing baselines, earning our team, KnowComp, the 1st place in the leaderboard of Argumentative Stance Classification subtask in this shared task.

pdf bib
DiscoPrompt: Path Prediction Prompt Tuning for Implicit Discourse Relation Recognition
Chunkit Chan | Xin Liu | Jiayang Cheng | Zihan Li | Yangqiu Song | Ginny Wong | Simon See
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Implicit Discourse Relation Recognition (IDRR) is a sophisticated and challenging task to recognize the discourse relations between the arguments with the absence of discourse connectives. The sense labels for each discourse relation follow a hierarchical classification scheme in the annotation process (Prasad et al., 2008), forming a hierarchy structure. Most existing works do not well incorporate the hierarchy structure but focus on the syntax features and the prior knowledge of connectives in the manner of pure text classification. We argue that it is more effective to predict the paths inside the hierarchical tree (e.g., “Comparison -> Contrast -> however”) rather than flat labels (e.g., Contrast) or connectives (e.g., however). We propose a prompt-based path prediction method to utilize the interactive information and intrinsic senses among the hierarchy in IDRR. This is the first work that injects such structure information into pre-trained language models via prompt tuning, and the performance of our solution shows significant and consistent improvement against competitive baselines.

pdf bib
NewsMet : A ‘do it all’ Dataset of Contemporary Metaphors in News Headlines
Rohan Joseph | Timothy Liu | Aik Beng Ng | Simon See | Sunny Rai
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Metaphors are highly creative constructs of human language that grow old and eventually die. Popular datasets used for metaphor processing tasks were constructed from dated source texts. In this paper, we propose NewsMet, a large high-quality contemporary dataset of news headlines hand-annotated with metaphorical verbs. The dataset comprises headlines from various sources including political, satirical, reliable and fake. Our dataset serves the purpose of evaluation for the tasks of metaphor interpretation and generation. The experiments reveal several insights and limitations of using LLMs to automate metaphor processing tasks as frequently seen in the recent literature. The dataset is publicly available for research purposes

pdf bib
Wasserstein-Fisher-Rao Embedding: Logical Query Embeddings with Local Comparison and Global Transport
Zihao Wang | Weizhi Fei | Hang Yin | Yangqiu Song | Ginny Wong | Simon See
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Answering complex queries on knowledge graphs is important but particularly challenging because of the data incompleteness. Query embedding methods address this issue by learningbased models and simulating logical reasoning with set operators. Previous works focus on specific forms of embeddings, but scoring functions between embeddings are underexplored. In contrast to existing scorning functions motivated by local comparison or global transport, this work investigates the local and global trade-off with unbalanced optimal transport theory. Specifically, we embed sets as bounded measures in R endowed with a scoring function motivated by the Wasserstein-Fisher-Rao metric. Such a design also facilitates closed-form set operators in the embedding space. Moreover, we introduce a convolution-based algorithm for linear time computation and a block diagonal kernel to enforce the trade-off. Results show that WFRE is capable of outperforming existing query embedding methods on standard datasets, evaluation sets with combinatorially complex queries, and hierarchical knowledge graphs. Ablation study shows that finding a better local and global trade-off is essential for performance improvement.

pdf bib
COLA: Contextualized Commonsense Causal Reasoning from the Causal Inference Perspective
Zhaowei Wang | Quyet V. Do | Hongming Zhang | Jiayao Zhang | Weiqi Wang | Tianqing Fang | Yangqiu Song | Ginny Wong | Simon See
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Detecting commonsense causal relations (causation) between events has long been an essential yet challenging task. Given that events are complicated, an event may have different causes under various contexts. Thus, exploiting context plays an essential role in detecting causal relations. Meanwhile, previous works about commonsense causation only consider two events and ignore their context, simplifying the task formulation. This paper proposes a new task to detect commonsense causation between two events in an event sequence (i.e., context), called contextualized commonsense causal reasoning. We also design a zero-shot framework: COLA (Contextualized Commonsense Causality Reasoner) to solve the task from the causal inference perspective. This framework obtains rich incidental supervision from temporality and balances covariates from multiple timestamps to remove confounding effects. Our extensive experiments show that COLA can detect commonsense causality more accurately than baselines.


pdf bib
PseudoReasoner: Leveraging Pseudo Labels for Commonsense Knowledge Base Population
Tianqing Fang | Quyet V. Do | Hongming Zhang | Yangqiu Song | Ginny Y. Wong | Simon See
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Commonsense Knowledge Base (CSKB) Population aims at reasoning over unseen entities and assertions on CSKBs, and is an important yet hard commonsense reasoning task. One challenge is that it requires out-of-domain generalization ability as the source CSKB for training is of a relatively smaller scale (1M) while the whole candidate space for population is way larger (200M). We propose PseudoReasoner, a semi-supervised learning framework for CSKB population that uses a teacher model pre-trained on CSKBs to provide pseudo labels on the unlabeled candidate dataset for a student model to learn from. The teacher can be a generative model rather than restricted to discriminative models as previous works.In addition, we design a new filtering procedure for pseudo labels based on influence function and the student model’s prediction to further improve the performance. The framework can improve the backbone model KG-BERT (RoBERTa-large) by 3.3 points on the overall performance and especially, 5.3 points on the out-of-domain performance, and achieves the state-of-the-art. The codes will be made public on acceptance. Codes and data are available at

pdf bib
SubeventWriter: Iterative Sub-event Sequence Generation with Coherence Controller
Zhaowei Wang | Hongming Zhang | Tianqing Fang | Yangqiu Song | Ginny Wong | Simon See
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this paper, we propose a new task of sub-event generation for an unseen process to evaluate the understanding of the coherence of sub-event actions and objects. To solve the problem, we design SubeventWriter, a sub-event sequence generation framework with a coherence controller. Given an unseen process, the framework can iteratively construct the sub-event sequence by generating one sub-event at each iteration. We also design a very effective coherence controller to decode more coherent sub-events. As our extensive experiments and analysis indicate, SubeventWriter can generate more reliable and meaningful sub-event sequences for unseen processes.

pdf bib
Complex Hyperbolic Knowledge Graph Embeddings with Fast Fourier Transform
Huiru Xiao | Xin Liu | Yangqiu Song | Ginny Wong | Simon See
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The choice of geometric space for knowledge graph (KG) embeddings can have significant effects on the performance of KG completion tasks. The hyperbolic geometry has been shown to capture the hierarchical patterns due to its tree-like metrics, which addressed the limitations of the Euclidean embedding models. Recent explorations of the complex hyperbolic geometry further improved the hyperbolic embeddings for capturing a variety of hierarchical structures. However, the performance of the hyperbolic KG embedding models for non-transitive relations is still unpromising, while the complex hyperbolic embeddings do not deal with multi-relations. This paper aims to utilize the representation capacity of the complex hyperbolic geometry in multi-relational KG embeddings. To apply the geometric transformations which account for different relations and the attention mechanism in the complex hyperbolic space, we propose to use the fast Fourier transform (FFT) as the conversion between the real and complex hyperbolic space. Constructing the attention-based transformations in the complex space is very challenging, while the proposed Fourier transform-based complex hyperbolic approaches provide a simple and effective solution. Experimental results show that our methods outperform the baselines, including the Euclidean and the real hyperbolic embedding models.