Siyu Yuan


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Distilling Script Knowledge from Large Language Models for Constrained Language Planning
Siyu Yuan | Jiangjie Chen | Ziquan Fu | Xuyang Ge | Soham Shah | Charles Jankowski | Yanghua Xiao | Deqing Yang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In everyday life, humans often plan their actions by following step-by-step instructions in the form of goal-oriented scripts. Previous work has exploited language models (LMs) to plan for abstract goals of stereotypical activities (e.g., “make a cake”), but leaves more specific goals with multi-facet constraints understudied (e.g., “make a cake for diabetics”). In this paper, we define the task of constrained language planning for the first time. We propose an over-generate-then-filter approach to improve large language models (LLMs) on this task, and use it to distill a novel constrained language planning dataset, Coscript, which consists of 55,000 scripts. Empirical results demonstrate that our method significantly improves the constrained language planning ability of LLMs, especially on constraint faithfulness. Furthermore, Coscript is demonstrated to be quite effective in endowing smaller LMs with constrained language planning ability.

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Causality-aware Concept Extraction based on Knowledge-guided Prompting
Siyu Yuan | Deqing Yang | Jinxi Liu | Shuyu Tian | Jiaqing Liang | Yanghua Xiao | Rui Xie
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Concepts benefit natural language understanding but are far from complete in existing knowledge graphs (KGs). Recently, pre-trained language models (PLMs) have been widely used in text-based concept extraction (CE). However, PLMs tend to mine the co-occurrence associations from massive corpus as pre-trained knowledge rather than the real causal effect between tokens. As a result, the pre-trained knowledge confounds PLMs to extract biased concepts based on spurious co-occurrence correlations, inevitably resulting in low precision. In this paper, through the lens of a Structural Causal Model (SCM), we propose equipping the PLM-based extractor with a knowledge-guided prompt as an intervention to alleviate concept bias. The prompt adopts the topic of the given entity from the existing knowledge in KGs to mitigate the spurious co-occurrence correlations between entities and biased concepts. Our extensive experiments on representative multilingual KG datasets justify that our proposed prompt can effectively alleviate concept bias and improve the performance of PLM-based CE models.

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Beneath Surface Similarity: Large Language Models Make Reasonable Scientific Analogies after Structure Abduction
Siyu Yuan | Jiangjie Chen | Xuyang Ge | Yanghua Xiao | Deqing Yang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

The vital role of analogical reasoning in human cognition allows us to grasp novel concepts by linking them with familiar ones through shared relational structures. Despite the attention previous research has given to word analogies, this work suggests that Large Language Models (LLMs) often overlook the structures that underpin these analogies, raising questions about the efficacy of word analogies as a measure of analogical reasoning skills akin to human cognition. In response to this, our paper introduces a task of analogical structure abduction, grounded in cognitive psychology, designed to abduce structures that form an analogy between two systems. In support of this task, we establish a benchmark called SCAR, containing 400 scientific analogies from 13 distinct fields, tailored for evaluating analogical reasoning with structure abduction. The empirical evidence underlines the continued challenges faced by LLMs, including ChatGPT and GPT-4, in mastering this task, signifying the need for future exploration to enhance their abilities.


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Generative Entity Typing with Curriculum Learning
Siyu Yuan | Deqing Yang | Jiaqing Liang | Zhixu Li | Jinxi Liu | Jingyue Huang | Yanghua Xiao
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Entity typing aims to assign types to the entity mentions in given texts. The traditional classification-based entity typing paradigm has two unignorable drawbacks: 1) it fails to assign an entity to the types beyond the predefined type set, and 2) it can hardly handle few-shot and zero-shot situations where many long-tail types only have few or even no training instances. To overcome these drawbacks, we propose a novel generative entity typing (GET) paradigm: given a text with an entity mention, the multiple types for the role that the entity plays in the text are generated with a pre-trained language model (PLM). However, PLMs tend to generate coarse-grained types after fine-tuning upon the entity typing dataset. In addition, only the heterogeneous training data consisting of a small portion of human-annotated data and a large portion of auto-generated but low-quality data are provided for model training. To tackle these problems, we employ curriculum learning (CL) to train our GET model on heterogeneous data, where the curriculum could be self-adjusted with the self-paced learning according to its comprehension of the type granularity and data heterogeneity. Our extensive experiments upon the datasets of different languages and downstream tasks justify the superiority of our GET model over the state-of-the-art entity typing models. The code has been released on