HAT: Hardware-Aware Transformers for Efficient Natural Language Processing
Hanrui Wang | Zhanghao Wu | Zhijian Liu | Han Cai | Ligeng Zhu | Chuang Gan | Song Han
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics
Transformers are ubiquitous in Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks, but they are difficult to be deployed on hardware due to the intensive computation. To enable low-latency inference on resource-constrained hardware platforms, we propose to design Hardware-Aware Transformers (HAT) with neural architecture search. We first construct a large design space with arbitrary encoder-decoder attention and heterogeneous layers. Then we train a SuperTransformer that covers all candidates in the design space, and efficiently produces many SubTransformers with weight sharing. Finally, we perform an evolutionary search with a hardware latency constraint to find a specialized SubTransformer dedicated to run fast on the target hardware. Extensive experiments on four machine translation tasks demonstrate that HAT can discover efficient models for different hardware (CPU, GPU, IoT device). When running WMT’14 translation task on Raspberry Pi-4, HAT can achieve 3× speedup, 3.7× smaller size over baseline Transformer; 2.7× speedup, 3.6× smaller size over Evolved Transformer with 12,041× less search cost and no performance loss. HAT is open-sourced at https://github.com/mit-han-lab/hardware-aware-transformers.
In modern information retrieval systems, effective indexing can be achieved by removal of stop words. Till now many stop word lists have been developed for English language. However, no standard stop word list has been constructed for Chinese language yet. With the fast development of information retrieval in Chinese language, exploring the evaluation of Chinese stop word lists becomes critical. In this paper, to save the time and release the burden of manual comparison, we propose a novel stop word list evaluation method with a mutual information-based Chinese segmentation methodology. Experiments have been conducted on training texts taken from a recent international Chinese segmentation competition. Results show that effective stop word lists can improve the accuracy of Chinese segmentation significantly.