Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) have shown effectiveness in various Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. Denoising autoencoder is one of the most successful pre-training frameworks, learning to recompose the original text given a noise-corrupted one. The existing studies mainly focus on injecting noises into the input. This paper introduces a simple yet effective pre-training paradigm, equipped with a knowledge-enhanced decoder that predicts the next entity token with noises in the prefix, explicitly strengthening the representation learning of entities that span over multiple input tokens. Specifically, when predicting the next token within an entity, we feed masks into the prefix in place of some of the previous ground-truth tokens that constitute the entity. Our model achieves new state-of-the-art results on two knowledge-driven data-to-text generation tasks with up to 2% BLEU gains.
The copying mechanism has had considerable success in abstractive summarization, facilitating models to directly copy words from the input text to the output summary. Existing works mostly employ encoder-decoder attention, which applies copying at each time step independently of the former ones. However, this may sometimes lead to incomplete copying. In this paper, we propose a novel copying scheme named Correlational Copying Network (CoCoNet) that enhances the standard copying mechanism by keeping track of the copying history. It thereby takes advantage of prior copying distributions and, at each time step, explicitly encourages the model to copy the input word that is relevant to the previously copied one. In addition, we strengthen CoCoNet through pre-training with suitable corpora that simulate the copying behaviors. Experimental results show that CoCoNet can copy more accurately and achieves new state-of-the-art performances on summarization benchmarks, including CNN/DailyMail for news summarization and SAMSum for dialogue summarization. The code and checkpoint will be publicly available.
Existing pre-trained language models (PLMs) have demonstrated the effectiveness of self-supervised learning for a broad range of natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, most of them are not explicitly aware of domain-specific knowledge, which is essential for downstream tasks in many domains, such as tasks in e-commerce scenarios. In this paper, we propose K-PLUG, a knowledge-injected pre-trained language model based on the encoder-decoder transformer that can be transferred to both natural language understanding and generation tasks. Specifically, we propose five knowledge-aware self-supervised pre-training objectives to formulate the learning of domain-specific knowledge, including e-commerce domain-specific knowledge-bases, aspects of product entities, categories of product entities, and unique selling propositions of product entities. We verify our method in a diverse range of e-commerce scenarios that require domain-specific knowledge, including product knowledge base completion, abstractive product summarization, and multi-turn dialogue. K-PLUG significantly outperforms baselines across the board, which demonstrates that the proposed method effectively learns a diverse set of domain-specific knowledge for both language understanding and generation tasks. Our code is available.
Copy module has been widely equipped in the recent abstractive summarization models, which facilitates the decoder to extract words from the source into the summary. Generally, the encoder-decoder attention is served as the copy distribution, while how to guarantee that important words in the source are copied remains a challenge. In this work, we propose a Transformer-based model to enhance the copy mechanism. Specifically, we identify the importance of each source word based on the degree centrality with a directed graph built by the self-attention layer in the Transformer. We use the centrality of each source word to guide the copy process explicitly. Experimental results show that the self-attention graph provides useful guidance for the copy distribution. Our proposed models significantly outperform the baseline methods on the CNN/Daily Mail dataset and the Gigaword dataset.
In this work, we present a model to generate e-commerce product summaries. The consistency between the generated summary and the product attributes is an essential criterion for the ecommerce product summarization task. To enhance the consistency, first, we encode the product attribute table to guide the process of summary generation. Second, we identify the attribute words from the vocabulary, and we constrain these attribute words can be presented in the summaries only through copying from the source, i.e., the attribute words not in the source cannot be generated. We construct a Chinese e-commerce product summarization dataset, and the experimental results on this dataset demonstrate that our models significantly improve the faithfulness.