Soumen Chakrabarti


pdf bib
Topic Transferable Table Question Answering
Saneem Chemmengath | Vishwajeet Kumar | Samarth Bharadwaj | Jaydeep Sen | Mustafa Canim | Soumen Chakrabarti | Alfio Gliozzo | Karthik Sankaranarayanan
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Weakly-supervised table question-answering (TableQA) models have achieved state-of-art performance by using pre-trained BERT transformer to jointly encoding a question and a table to produce structured query for the question. However, in practical settings TableQA systems are deployed over table corpora having topic and word distributions quite distinct from BERT’s pretraining corpus. In this work we simulate the practical topic shift scenario by designing novel challenge benchmarks WikiSQL-TS and WikiTable-TS, consisting of train-dev-test splits in five distinct topic groups, based on the popular WikiSQL and WikiTable-Questions datasets. We empirically show that, despite pre-training on large open-domain text, performance of models degrades significantly when they are evaluated on unseen topics. In response, we propose T3QA (Topic Transferable Table Question Answering) a pragmatic adaptation framework for TableQA comprising of: (1) topic-specific vocabulary injection into BERT, (2) a novel text-to-text transformer generator (such as T5, GPT2) based natural language question generation pipeline focused on generating topic-specific training data, and (3) a logical form re-ranker. We show that T3QA provides a reasonably good baseline for our topic shift benchmarks. We believe our topic split benchmarks will lead to robust TableQA solutions that are better suited for practical deployment

pdf bib
A Data Bootstrapping Recipe for Low-Resource Multilingual Relation Classification
Arijit Nag | Bidisha Samanta | Animesh Mukherjee | Niloy Ganguly | Soumen Chakrabarti
Proceedings of the 25th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

Relation classification (sometimes called ‘extraction’) requires trustworthy datasets for fine-tuning large language models, as well as for evaluation. Data collection is challenging for Indian languages, because they are syntactically and morphologically diverse, as well as different from resource-rich languages like English. Despite recent interest in deep generative models for Indian languages, relation classification is still not well-served by public data sets. In response, we present IndoRE, a dataset with 39K entity- and relation-tagged gold sentences in three Indian languages, plus English. We start with a multilingual BERT (mBERT) based system that captures entity span positions and type information and provides competitive monolingual relation classification. Using this system, we explore and compare transfer mechanisms between languages. In particular, we study the accuracy-efficiency tradeoff between expensive gold instances vs. translated and aligned ‘silver’ instances.

pdf bib
Question Answering Over Temporal Knowledge Graphs
Apoorv Saxena | Soumen Chakrabarti | Partha Talukdar
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Temporal Knowledge Graphs (Temporal KGs) extend regular Knowledge Graphs by providing temporal scopes (start and end times) on each edge in the KG. While Question Answering over KG (KGQA) has received some attention from the research community, QA over Temporal KGs (Temporal KGQA) is a relatively unexplored area. Lack of broad coverage datasets has been another factor limiting progress in this area. We address this challenge by presenting CRONQUESTIONS, the largest known Temporal KGQA dataset, clearly stratified into buckets of structural complexity. CRONQUESTIONS expands the only known previous dataset by a factor of 340x. We find that various state-of-the-art KGQA methods fall far short of the desired performance on this new dataset. In response, we also propose CRONKGQA, a transformer-based solution that exploits recent advances in Temporal KG embeddings, and achieves performance superior to all baselines, with an increase of 120% in accuracy over the next best performing method. Through extensive experiments, we give detailed insights into the workings of CRONKGQA, as well as situations where significant further improvements appear possible. In addition to the dataset, we have released our code as well.


pdf bib
IMoJIE: Iterative Memory-Based Joint Open Information Extraction
Keshav Kolluru | Samarth Aggarwal | Vipul Rathore | Mausam | Soumen Chakrabarti
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

While traditional systems for Open Information Extraction were statistical and rule-based, recently neural models have been introduced for the task. Our work builds upon CopyAttention, a sequence generation OpenIE model (Cui et. al. 18). Our analysis reveals that CopyAttention produces a constant number of extractions per sentence, and its extracted tuples often express redundant information. We present IMoJIE, an extension to CopyAttention, which produces the next extraction conditioned on all previously extracted tuples. This approach overcomes both shortcomings of CopyAttention, resulting in a variable number of diverse extractions per sentence. We train IMoJIE on training data bootstrapped from extractions of several non-neural systems, which have been automatically filtered to reduce redundancy and noise. IMoJIE outperforms CopyAttention by about 18 F1 pts, and a BERT-based strong baseline by 2 F1 pts, establishing a new state of the art for the task.

pdf bib
Temporal Knowledge Base Completion: New Algorithms and Evaluation Protocols
Prachi Jain | Sushant Rathi | Mausam | Soumen Chakrabarti
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Research on temporal knowledge bases, which associate a relational fact (s,r,o) with a validity time period (or time instant), is in its early days. Our work considers predicting missing entities (link prediction) and missing time intervals (time prediction) as joint Temporal Knowledge Base Completion (TKBC) tasks, and presents TIMEPLEX, a novel TKBC method, in which entities, relations and, time are all embedded in a uniform, compatible space. TIMEPLEX exploits the recurrent nature of some facts/events and temporal interactions between pairs of relations, yielding state-of-the-art results on both prediction tasks. We also find that existing TKBC models heavily overestimate link prediction performance due to imperfect evaluation mechanisms. In response, we propose improved TKBC evaluation protocols for both link and time prediction tasks, dealing with subtle issues that arise from the partial overlap of time intervals in gold instances and system predictions.

pdf bib
OpenIE6: Iterative Grid Labeling and Coordination Analysis for Open Information Extraction
Keshav Kolluru | Vaibhav Adlakha | Samarth Aggarwal | Mausam | Soumen Chakrabarti
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

A recent state-of-the-art neural open information extraction (OpenIE) system generates extractions iteratively, requiring repeated encoding of partial outputs. This comes at a significant computational cost. On the other hand,sequence labeling approaches for OpenIE are much faster, but worse in extraction quality. In this paper, we bridge this trade-off by presenting an iterative labeling-based system that establishes a new state of the art for OpenIE, while extracting 10x faster. This is achieved through a novel Iterative Grid Labeling (IGL) architecture, which treats OpenIE as a 2-D grid labeling task. We improve its performance further by applying coverage (soft) constraints on the grid at training time. Moreover, on observing that the best OpenIE systems falter at handling coordination structures, our OpenIE system also incorporates a new coordination analyzer built with the same IGL architecture. This IGL based coordination analyzer helps our OpenIE system handle complicated coordination structures, while also establishing a new state of the art on the task of coordination analysis, with a 12.3 pts improvement in F1 over previous analyzers. Our OpenIE system - OpenIE6 - beats the previous systems by as much as 4 pts in F1, while being much faster.

pdf bib
NLP Service APIs and Models for Efficient Registration of New Clients
Sahil Shah | Vihari Piratla | Soumen Chakrabarti | Sunita Sarawagi
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

State-of-the-art NLP inference uses enormous neural architectures and models trained for GPU-months, well beyond the reach of most consumers of NLP. This has led to one-size-fits-all public API-based NLP service models by major AI companies, serving millions of clients. They cannot afford traditional fine tuning for individual clients. Many clients cannot even afford significant fine tuning, and own little or no labeled data. Recognizing that word usage and salience diversity across clients leads to reduced accuracy, we initiate a study of practical and lightweight adaptation of centralized NLP services to clients. Each client uses an unsupervised, corpus-based sketch to register to the service. The server modifies its network mildly to accommodate client sketches, and occasionally trains the augmented network over existing clients. When a new client registers with its sketch, it gets immediate accuracy benefits. We demonstrate the proposed architecture using sentiment labeling, NER, and predictive language modeling.


pdf bib
Complex Program Induction for Querying Knowledge Bases in the Absence of Gold Programs
Amrita Saha | Ghulam Ahmed Ansari | Abhishek Laddha | Karthik Sankaranarayanan | Soumen Chakrabarti
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 7

Recent years have seen increasingly complex question-answering on knowledge bases (KBQA) involving logical, quantitative, and comparative reasoning over KB subgraphs. Neural Program Induction (NPI) is a pragmatic approach toward modularizing the reasoning process by translating a complex natural language query into a multi-step executable program. While NPI has been commonly trained with the ‘‘gold’’ program or its sketch, for realistic KBQA applications such gold programs are expensive to obtain. There, practically only natural language queries and the corresponding answers can be provided for training. The resulting combinatorial explosion in program space, along with extremely sparse rewards, makes NPI for KBQA ambitious and challenging. We present Complex Imperative Program Induction from Terminal Rewards (CIPITR), an advanced neural programmer that mitigates reward sparsity with auxiliary rewards, and restricts the program space to semantically correct programs using high-level constraints, KB schema, and inferred answer type. CIPITR solves complex KBQA considerably more accurately than key-value memory networks and neural symbolic machines (NSM). For moderately complex queries requiring 2- to 5-step programs, CIPITR scores at least 3× higher F1 than the competing systems. On one of the hardest class of programs (comparative reasoning) with 5–10 steps, CIPITR outperforms NSM by a factor of 89 and memory networks by 9 times.

pdf bib
Topic Sensitive Attention on Generic Corpora Corrects Sense Bias in Pretrained Embeddings
Vihari Piratla | Sunita Sarawagi | Soumen Chakrabarti
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Given a small corpus D_T pertaining to a limited set of focused topics, our goal is to train embeddings that accurately capture the sense of words in the topic in spite of the limited size of D_T. These embeddings may be used in various tasks involving D_T. A popular strategy in limited data settings is to adapt pretrained embeddings E trained on a large corpus. To correct for sense drift, fine-tuning, regularization, projection, and pivoting have been proposed recently. Among these, regularization informed by a word’s corpus frequency performed well, but we improve upon it using a new regularizer based on the stability of its cooccurrence with other words. However, a thorough comparison across ten topics, spanning three tasks, with standardized settings of hyper-parameters, reveals that even the best embedding adaptation strategies provide small gains beyond well-tuned baselines, which many earlier comparisons ignored. In a bold departure from adapting pretrained embeddings, we propose using D_T to probe, attend to, and borrow fragments from any large, topic-rich source corpus (such as Wikipedia), which need not be the corpus used to pretrain embeddings. This step is made scalable and practical by suitable indexing. We reach the surprising conclusion that even limited corpus augmentation is more useful than adapting embeddings, which suggests that non-dominant sense information may be irrevocably obliterated from pretrained embeddings and cannot be salvaged by adaptation.

pdf bib
Improved Sentiment Detection via Label Transfer from Monolingual to Synthetic Code-Switched Text
Bidisha Samanta | Niloy Ganguly | Soumen Chakrabarti
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Multilingual writers and speakers often alternate between two languages in a single discourse. This practice is called “code-switching”. Existing sentiment detection methods are usually trained on sentiment-labeled monolingual text. Manually labeled code-switched text, especially involving minority languages, is extremely rare. Consequently, the best monolingual methods perform relatively poorly on code-switched text. We present an effective technique for synthesizing labeled code-switched text from labeled monolingual text, which is relatively readily available. The idea is to replace carefully selected subtrees of constituency parses of sentences in the resource-rich language with suitable token spans selected from automatic translations to the resource-poor language. By augmenting the scarce labeled code-switched text with plentiful synthetic labeled code-switched text, we achieve significant improvements in sentiment labeling accuracy (1.5%, 5.11% 7.20%) for three different language pairs (English-Hindi, English-Spanish and English-Bengali). The improvement is even significant in hatespeech detection whereby we achieve a 4% improvement using only synthetic code-switched data (6% with data augmentation).


pdf bib
Type-Sensitive Knowledge Base Inference Without Explicit Type Supervision
Prachi Jain | Pankaj Kumar | Mausam | Soumen Chakrabarti
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

State-of-the-art knowledge base completion (KBC) models predict a score for every known or unknown fact via a latent factorization over entity and relation embeddings. We observe that when they fail, they often make entity predictions that are incompatible with the type required by the relation. In response, we enhance each base factorization with two type-compatibility terms between entity-relation pairs, and combine the signals in a novel manner. Without explicit supervision from a type catalog, our proposed modification obtains up to 7% MRR gains over base models, and new state-of-the-art results on several datasets. Further analysis reveals that our models better represent the latent types of entities and their embeddings also predict supervised types better than the embeddings fitted by baseline models.


pdf bib
Collective Entity Resolution with Multi-Focal Attention
Amir Globerson | Nevena Lazic | Soumen Chakrabarti | Amarnag Subramanya | Michael Ringgaard | Fernando Pereira
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)


pdf bib
Knowledge Graph and Corpus Driven Segmentation and Answer Inference for Telegraphic Entity-seeking Queries
Mandar Joshi | Uma Sawant | Soumen Chakrabarti
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)


pdf bib
Joint Bootstrapping of Corpus Annotations and Entity Types
Hrushikesh Mohapatra | Siddhanth Jain | Soumen Chakrabarti
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing


pdf bib
Enhanced Answer Type Inference from Questions using Sequential Models
Vijay Krishnan | Sujatha Das | Soumen Chakrabarti
Proceedings of Human Language Technology Conference and Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing


pdf bib
Question Answering via Bayesian Inference on Lexical Relations
Ganesh Ramakrishnan | Apurva Jadhav | Ashutosh Joshi | Soumen Chakrabarti | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the ACL 2003 Workshop on Multilingual Summarization and Question Answering