Souvik Kundu


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Evaluation Benchmarks for Spanish Sentence Representations
Vladimir Araujo | Andrés Carvallo | Souvik Kundu | José Cañete | Marcelo Mendoza | Robert E. Mercer | Felipe Bravo-Marquez | Marie-Francine Moens | Alvaro Soto
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Due to the success of pre-trained language models, versions of languages other than English have been released in recent years. This fact implies the need for resources to evaluate these models. In the case of Spanish, there are few ways to systematically assess the models’ quality. In this paper, we narrow the gap by building two evaluation benchmarks. Inspired by previous work (Conneau and Kiela, 2018; Chen et al., 2019), we introduce Spanish SentEval and Spanish DiscoEval, aiming to assess the capabilities of stand-alone and discourse-aware sentence representations, respectively. Our benchmarks include considerable pre-existing and newly constructed datasets that address different tasks from various domains. In addition, we evaluate and analyze the most recent pre-trained Spanish language models to exhibit their capabilities and limitations. As an example, we discover that for the case of discourse evaluation tasks, mBERT, a language model trained on multiple languages, usually provides a richer latent representation than models trained only with documents in Spanish. We hope our contribution will motivate a fairer, more comparable, and less cumbersome way to evaluate future Spanish language models.


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Learning to Identify Follow-Up Questions in Conversational Question Answering
Souvik Kundu | Qian Lin | Hwee Tou Ng
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Despite recent progress in conversational question answering, most prior work does not focus on follow-up questions. Practical conversational question answering systems often receive follow-up questions in an ongoing conversation, and it is crucial for a system to be able to determine whether a question is a follow-up question of the current conversation, for more effective answer finding subsequently. In this paper, we introduce a new follow-up question identification task. We propose a three-way attentive pooling network that determines the suitability of a follow-up question by capturing pair-wise interactions between the associated passage, the conversation history, and a candidate follow-up question. It enables the model to capture topic continuity and topic shift while scoring a particular candidate follow-up question. Experiments show that our proposed three-way attentive pooling network outperforms all baseline systems by significant margins.

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A Co-Attentive Cross-Lingual Neural Model for Dialogue Breakdown Detection
Qian Lin | Souvik Kundu | Hwee Tou Ng
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Ensuring smooth communication is essential in a chat-oriented dialogue system, so that a user can obtain meaningful responses through interactions with the system. Most prior work on dialogue research does not focus on preventing dialogue breakdown. One of the major challenges is that a dialogue system may generate an undesired utterance leading to a dialogue breakdown, which degrades the overall interaction quality. Hence, it is crucial for a machine to detect dialogue breakdowns in an ongoing conversation. In this paper, we propose a novel dialogue breakdown detection model that jointly incorporates a pretrained cross-lingual language model and a co-attention network. Our proposed model leverages effective word embeddings trained on one hundred different languages to generate contextualized representations. Co-attention aims to capture the interaction between the latest utterance and the conversation history, and thereby determines whether the latest utterance causes a dialogue breakdown. Experimental results show that our proposed model outperforms all previous approaches on all evaluation metrics in both the Japanese and English tracks in Dialogue Breakdown Detection Challenge 4 (DBDC4 at IWSDS2019).


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Exploiting Explicit Paths for Multi-hop Reading Comprehension
Souvik Kundu | Tushar Khot | Ashish Sabharwal | Peter Clark
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We propose a novel, path-based reasoning approach for the multi-hop reading comprehension task where a system needs to combine facts from multiple passages to answer a question. Although inspired by multi-hop reasoning over knowledge graphs, our proposed approach operates directly over unstructured text. It generates potential paths through passages and scores them without any direct path supervision. The proposed model, named PathNet, attempts to extract implicit relations from text through entity pair representations, and compose them to encode each path. To capture additional context, PathNet also composes the passage representations along each path to compute a passage-based representation. Unlike previous approaches, our model is then able to explain its reasoning via these explicit paths through the passages. We show that our approach outperforms prior models on the multi-hop Wikihop dataset, and also can be generalized to apply to the OpenBookQA dataset, matching state-of-the-art performance.


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A Nil-Aware Answer Extraction Framework for Question Answering
Souvik Kundu | Hwee Tou Ng
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recently, there has been a surge of interest in reading comprehension-based (RC) question answering (QA). However, current approaches suffer from an impractical assumption that every question has a valid answer in the associated passage. A practical QA system must possess the ability to determine whether a valid answer exists in a given text passage. In this paper, we focus on developing QA systems that can extract an answer for a question if and only if the associated passage contains an answer. If the associated passage does not contain any valid answer, the QA system will correctly return Nil. We propose a novel nil-aware answer span extraction framework that is capable of returning Nil or a text span from the associated passage as an answer in a single step. We show that our proposed framework can be easily integrated with several recently proposed QA models developed for reading comprehension and can be trained in an end-to-end fashion. Our proposed nil-aware answer extraction neural network decomposes pieces of evidence into relevant and irrelevant parts and then combines them to infer the existence of any answer. Experiments on the NewsQA dataset show that the integration of our proposed framework significantly outperforms several strong baseline systems that use pipeline or threshold-based approaches.