Soyeong Jeong


2024

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Adaptive-RAG: Learning to Adapt Retrieval-Augmented Large Language Models through Question Complexity
Soyeong Jeong | Jinheon Baek | Sukmin Cho | Sung Ju Hwang | Jong Park
Proceedings of the 2024 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Retrieval-Augmented Large Language Models (LLMs), which incorporate the non-parametric knowledge from external knowledge bases into LLMs, have emerged as a promising approach to enhancing response accuracy in several tasks, such as Question-Answering (QA). However, even though there are various approaches dealing with queries of different complexities, they either handle simple queries with unnecessary computational overhead or fail to adequately address complex multi-step queries; yet, not all user requests fall into only one of the simple or complex categories. In this work, we propose a novel adaptive QA framework that can dynamically select the most suitable strategy for (retrieval-augmented) LLMs from the simplest to the most sophisticated ones based on the query complexity. Also, this selection process is operationalized with a classifier, which is a smaller LM trained to predict the complexity level of incoming queries with automatically collected labels, obtained from actual predicted outcomes of models and inherent inductive biases in datasets. This approach offers a balanced strategy, seamlessly adapting between the iterative and single-step retrieval-augmented LLMs, as well as the no-retrieval methods, in response to a range of query complexities. We validate our model on a set of open-domain QA datasets, covering multiple query complexities, and show that ours enhances the overall efficiency and accuracy of QA systems, compared to relevant baselines including the adaptive retrieval approaches. Code is available at: https://github.com/starsuzi/Adaptive-RAG.

2023

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Discrete Prompt Optimization via Constrained Generation for Zero-shot Re-ranker
Sukmin Cho | Soyeong Jeong | Jeong yeon Seo | Jong Park
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Re-rankers, which order retrieved documents with respect to the relevance score on the given query, have gained attention for the information retrieval (IR) task. Rather than fine-tuning the pre-trained language model (PLM), the large-scale language model (LLM) is utilized as a zero-shot re-ranker with excellent results. While LLM is highly dependent on the prompts, the impact and the optimization of the prompts for the zero-shot re-ranker are not explored yet. Along with highlighting the impact of optimization on the zero-shot re-ranker, we propose a novel discrete prompt optimization method, Constrained Prompt generation (Co-Prompt), with the metric estimating the optimum for re-ranking. Co-Prompt guides the generated texts from PLM toward optimal prompts based on the metric without parameter update. The experimental results demonstrate that Co-Prompt leads to outstanding re-ranking performance against the baselines. Also, Co-Prompt generates more interpretable prompts for humans against other prompt optimization methods.

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Phrase Retrieval for Open Domain Conversational Question Answering with Conversational Dependency Modeling via Contrastive Learning
Soyeong Jeong | Jinheon Baek | Sung Ju Hwang | Jong Park
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Open-Domain Conversational Question Answering (ODConvQA) aims at answering questions through a multi-turn conversation based on a retriever-reader pipeline, which retrieves passages and then predicts answers with them. However, such a pipeline approach not only makes the reader vulnerable to the errors propagated from the retriever, but also demands additional effort to develop both the retriever and the reader, which further makes it slower since they are not runnable in parallel. In this work, we propose a method to directly predict answers with a phrase retrieval scheme for a sequence of words, reducing the conventional two distinct subtasks into a single one. Also, for the first time, we study its capability for ODConvQA tasks. However, simply adopting it is largely problematic, due to the dependencies between previous and current turns in a conversation. To address this problem, we further introduce a novel contrastive learning strategy, making sure to reflect previous turns when retrieving the phrase for the current context, by maximizing representational similarities of consecutive turns in a conversation while minimizing irrelevant conversational contexts. We validate our model on two ODConvQA datasets, whose experimental results show that it substantially outperforms the relevant baselines with the retriever-reader. Code is available at: https://github.com/starsuzi/PRO-ConvQA.

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Improving Zero-shot Reader by Reducing Distractions from Irrelevant Documents in Open-Domain Question Answering
Sukmin Cho | Jeongyeon Seo | Soyeong Jeong | Jong Park
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Large language models (LLMs) enable zero-shot approaches in open-domain question answering (ODQA), yet with limited advancements as the reader is compared to the retriever. This study aims at the feasibility of a zero-shot reader that addresses the challenges of computational cost and the need for labeled data. We find that LLMs are distracted due to irrelevant documents in the retrieved set and the overconfidence of the generated answers when they are exploited as zero-shot readers. To tackle these problems, we mitigate the impact of such documents via Distraction-aware Answer Selection (DAS) with a negation-based instruction and score adjustment for proper answer selection. Experimental results show that our approach successfully handles distraction across diverse scenarios, enhancing the performance of zero-shot readers. Furthermore, unlike supervised readers struggling with unseen data, zero-shot readers demonstrate outstanding transferability without any training.

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Test-Time Self-Adaptive Small Language Models for Question Answering
Soyeong Jeong | Jinheon Baek | Sukmin Cho | Sung Hwang | Jong Park
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Recent instruction-finetuned large language models (LMs) have achieved notable performances in various tasks, such as question-answering (QA). However, despite their ability to memorize a vast amount of general knowledge across diverse tasks, they might be suboptimal on specific tasks due to their limited capacity to transfer and adapt knowledge to target tasks. Moreover, further finetuning LMs with labeled datasets is often infeasible due to their absence, but it is also questionable if we can transfer smaller LMs having limited knowledge only with unlabeled test data. In this work, we show and investigate the capabilities of smaller self-adaptive LMs, only with unlabeled test data. In particular, we first stochastically generate multiple answers, and then ensemble them while filtering out low-quality samples to mitigate noise from inaccurate labels. Our proposed self-adaption strategy demonstrates significant performance improvements on benchmark QA datasets with higher robustness across diverse prompts, enabling LMs to stay stable. Code is available at: https://github.com/starsuzi/T-SAS.

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Realistic Conversational Question Answering with Answer Selection based on Calibrated Confidence and Uncertainty Measurement
Soyeong Jeong | Jinheon Baek | Sung Ju Hwang | Jong Park
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Conversational Question Answering (ConvQA) models aim at answering a question with its relevant paragraph and previous question-answer pairs that occurred during conversation multiple times. To apply such models to a real-world scenario, some existing work uses predicted answers, instead of unavailable ground-truth answers, as the conversation history for inference. However, since these models usually predict wrong answers, using all the predictions without filtering significantly hampers the model performance. To address this problem, we propose to filter out inaccurate answers in the conversation history based on their estimated confidences and uncertainties from the ConvQA model, without making any architectural changes. Moreover, to make the confidence and uncertainty values more reliable, we propose to further calibrate them, thereby smoothing the model predictions. We validate our models, Answer Selection-based realistic Conversation Question Answering, on two standard ConvQA datasets, and the results show that our models significantly outperform relevant baselines. Code is available at: https://github.com/starsuzi/AS-ConvQA.

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Knowledge-Augmented Language Model Verification
Jinheon Baek | Soyeong Jeong | Minki Kang | Jong Park | Sung Hwang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent Language Models (LMs) have shown impressive capabilities in generating texts with the knowledge internalized in parameters. Yet, LMs often generate the factually incorrect responses to the given queries, since their knowledge may be inaccurate, incomplete, and outdated. To address this problem, previous works propose to augment LMs with the knowledge retrieved from an external knowledge source. However, such approaches often show suboptimal text generation performance due to two reasons: 1) the model may fail to retrieve the knowledge relevant to the given query, or 2) the model may not faithfully reflect the retrieved knowledge in the generated text. To overcome these, we propose to verify the output and the knowledge of the knowledge-augmented LMs with a separate verifier, which is a small LM that is trained to detect those two types of errors through instruction-finetuning. Then, when the verifier recognizes an error, we can rectify it by either retrieving new knowledge or generating new text. Further, we use an ensemble of the outputs from different instructions with a single verifier to enhance the reliability of the verification processes. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed verification steps on multiple question answering benchmarks, whose results show that the proposed verifier effectively identifies retrieval and generation errors, allowing LMs to provide more factually correct outputs. Our code is available at https://github.com/JinheonBaek/KALMV.

2022

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Query Generation with External Knowledge for Dense Retrieval
Sukmin Cho | Soyeong Jeong | Wonsuk Yang | Jong Park
Proceedings of Deep Learning Inside Out (DeeLIO 2022): The 3rd Workshop on Knowledge Extraction and Integration for Deep Learning Architectures

Dense retrieval aims at searching for the most relevant documents to the given query by encoding texts in the embedding space, requiring a large amount of query-document pairs to train. Since manually constructing such training data is challenging, recent work has proposed to generate synthetic queries from documents and use them to train a dense retriever. However, compared to the manually composed queries, synthetic queries do not generally ask for implicit information, therefore leading to a degraded retrieval performance. In this work, we propose Query Generation with External Knowledge (QGEK), a novel method for generating queries with external information related to the corresponding document. Specifically, we convert a query into a triplet-based template form to accommodate external information and transmit it to a pre-trained language model (PLM). We validate QGEK on both in-domain and out-domain dense retrieval settings. The dense retriever with the queries requiring implicit information is found to make good performance improvement. Also, such queries are similar to manually composed queries, confirmed by both human evaluation and unique & non-unique words distribution.

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Augmenting Document Representations for Dense Retrieval with Interpolation and Perturbation
Soyeong Jeong | Jinheon Baek | Sukmin Cho | Sung Ju Hwang | Jong Park
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Dense retrieval models, which aim at retrieving the most relevant document for an input query on a dense representation space, have gained considerable attention for their remarkable success. Yet, dense models require a vast amount of labeled training data for notable performance, whereas it is often challenging to acquire query-document pairs annotated by humans. To tackle this problem, we propose a simple but effective Document Augmentation for dense Retrieval (DAR) framework, which augments the representations of documents with their interpolation and perturbation. We validate the performance of DAR on retrieval tasks with two benchmark datasets, showing that the proposed DAR significantly outperforms relevant baselines on the dense retrieval of both the labeled and unlabeled documents.

2021

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Unsupervised Document Expansion for Information Retrieval with Stochastic Text Generation
Soyeong Jeong | Jinheon Baek | ChaeHun Park | Jong Park
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Scholarly Document Processing

One of the challenges in information retrieval (IR) is the vocabulary mismatch problem, which happens when the terms between queries and documents are lexically different but semantically similar. While recent work has proposed to expand the queries or documents by enriching their representations with additional relevant terms to address this challenge, they usually require a large volume of query-document pairs to train an expansion model. In this paper, we propose an Unsupervised Document Expansion with Generation (UDEG) framework with a pre-trained language model, which generates diverse supplementary sentences for the original document without using labels on query-document pairs for training. For generating sentences, we further stochastically perturb their embeddings to generate more diverse sentences for document expansion. We validate our framework on two standard IR benchmark datasets. The results show that our framework significantly outperforms relevant expansion baselines for IR.