Recent work uses a Siamese Network, initialized with BioWordVec embeddings (distributed word embeddings), for predicting synonymy among biomedical terms to automate a part of the UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) Metathesaurus construction process. We evaluate the use of contextualized word embeddings extracted from nine different biomedical BERT-based models for synonym prediction in the UMLS by replacing BioWordVec embeddings with embeddings extracted from each biomedical BERT model using different feature extraction methods. Finally, we conduct a thorough grid search, which prior work lacks, to find the best set of hyperparameters. Surprisingly, we find that Siamese Networks initialized with BioWordVec embeddings still out perform the Siamese Networks initialized with embedding extracted from biomedical BERT model.
Darknet market forums are frequently used to exchange illegal goods and services between parties who use encryption to conceal their identities. The Tor network is used to host these markets, which guarantees additional anonymization from IP and location tracking, making it challenging to link across malicious users using multiple accounts (sybils). Additionally, users migrate to new forums when one is closed further increasing the difficulty of linking users across multiple forums. We develop a novel stylometry-based multitask learning approach for natural language and model interactions using graph embeddings to construct low-dimensional representations of short episodes of user activity for authorship attribution. We provide a comprehensive evaluation of our methods across four different darknet forums demonstrating its efficacy over the state-of-the-art, with a lift of up to 2.5X on Mean Retrieval Rank and 2X on Recall@10.
We empirically study the effectiveness of machine-generated fake news detectors by understanding the model’s sensitivity to different synthetic perturbations during test time. The current machine-generated fake news detectors rely on provenance to determine the veracity of news. Our experiments find that the success of these detectors can be limited since they are rarely sensitive to semantic perturbations and are very sensitive to syntactic perturbations. Also, we would like to open-source our code and believe it could be a useful diagnostic tool for evaluating models aimed at fighting machine-generated fake news.
Abstractive summarization at controllable lengths is a challenging task in natural language processing. It is even more challenging for domains where limited training data is available or scenarios in which the length of the summary is not known beforehand. At the same time, when it comes to trusting machine-generated summaries, explaining how a summary was constructed in human-understandable terms may be critical. We propose Multi-level Summarizer (MLS), a supervised method to construct abstractive summaries of a text document at controllable lengths. The key enabler of our method is an interpretable multi-headed attention mechanism that computes attention distribution over an input document using an array of timestep independent semantic kernels. Each kernel optimizes a human-interpretable syntactic or semantic property. Exhaustive experiments on two low-resource datasets in English show that MLS outperforms strong baselines by up to 14.70% in the METEOR score. Human evaluation of the summaries also suggests that they capture the key concepts of the document at various length-budgets.