Stephanie Strassel

Also published as: Stephanie M. Strassel


2022

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Reflections on 30 Years of Language Resource Development and Sharing
Christopher Cieri | Mark Liberman | Sunghye Cho | Stephanie Strassel | James Fiumara | Jonathan Wright
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

The Linguistic Data Consortium was founded in 1992 to solve the problem that limitations in access to shareable data was impeding progress in Human Language Technology research and development. At the time, DARPA had adopted the common task research management paradigm to impose additional rigor on their programs by also providing shared objectives, data and evaluation methods. Early successes underscored the promise of this paradigm but also the need for a standing infrastructure to host and distribute the shared data. During LDC’s initial five year grant, it became clear that the demand for linguistic data could not easily be met by the existing providers and that a dedicated data center could add capacity first for data collection and shortly thereafter for annotation. The expanding purview required expansions of LDC’s technical infrastructure including systems support and software development. An open question for the center would be its role in other kinds of research beyond data development. Over its 30 years history, LDC has performed multiple roles ranging from neutral, independent data provider to multisite programs, to creator of exploratory data in tight collaboration with system developers, to research group focused on data intensive investigations.

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CAMIO: A Corpus for OCR in Multiple Languages
Michael Arrigo | Stephanie Strassel | Nolan King | Thao Tran | Lisa Mason
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

CAMIO (Corpus of Annotated Multilingual Images for OCR) is a new corpus created by Linguistic Data Consortium to serve as a resource to support the development and evaluation of optical character recognition (OCR) and related technologies for 35 languages across 24 unique scripts. The corpus comprises nearly 70,000 images of machine printed text, covering a wide variety of topics and styles, document domains, attributes and scanning/capture artifacts. Most images have been exhaustively annotated for text localization, resulting in over 2.3M line-level bounding boxes. For 13 of the 35 languages, 1250 images/language have been further annotated with orthographic transcriptions of each line plus specification of reading order, yielding over 2.4M tokens of transcribed text. The resulting annotations are represented in a comprehensive XML output format defined for this corpus. The paper discusses corpus design and implementation, challenges encountered, baseline performance results obtained on the corpus for text localization and OCR decoding, and plans for corpus publication.

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A Study in Contradiction: Data and Annotation for AIDA Focusing on Informational Conflict in Russia-Ukraine Relations
Jennifer Tracey | Ann Bies | Jeremy Getman | Kira Griffitt | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

This paper describes data resources created for Phase 1 of the DARPA Active Interpretation of Disparate Alternatives (AIDA) program, which aims to develop language technology that can help humans manage large volumes of sometimes conflicting information to develop a comprehensive understanding of events around the world, even when such events are described in multiple media and languages. Especially important is the need for the technology to be capable of building multiple hypotheses to account for alternative interpretations of data imbued with informational conflict. The corpus described here is designed to support these goals. It focuses on the domain of Russia-Ukraine relations and contains multimedia source data in English, Russian and Ukrainian, annotated to support development and evaluation of systems that perform extraction of entities, events, and relations from individual multimedia documents, aggregate the information across documents and languages, and produce multiple “hypotheses” about what has happened. This paper describes source data collection, annotation, and assessment.

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WeCanTalk: A New Multi-language, Multi-modal Resource for Speaker Recognition
Karen Jones | Kevin Walker | Christopher Caruso | Jonathan Wright | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

The WeCanTalk (WCT) Corpus is a new multi-language, multi-modal resource for speaker recognition. The corpus contains Cantonese, Mandarin and English telephony and video speech data from over 200 multilingual speakers located in Hong Kong. Each speaker contributed at least 10 telephone conversations of 8-10 minutes’ duration collected via a custom telephone platform based in Hong Kong. Speakers also uploaded at least 3 videos in which they were both speaking and visible, along with one selfie image. At least half of the calls and videos for each speaker were in Cantonese, while their remaining recordings featured one or more different languages. Both calls and videos were made in a variety of noise conditions. All speech and video recordings were audited by experienced multilingual annotators for quality including presence of the expected language and for speaker identity. The WeCanTalk Corpus has been used to support the NIST 2021 Speaker Recognition Evaluation and will be published in the LDC catalog.

2020

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A Progress Report on Activities at the Linguistic Data Consortium Benefitting the LREC Community
Christopher Cieri | James Fiumara | Stephanie Strassel | Jonathan Wright | Denise DiPersio | Mark Liberman
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

This latest in a series of Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) progress reports to the LREC community does not describe any single language resource, evaluation campaign or technology but sketches the activities, since the last report, of a data center devoted to supporting the work of LREC attendees among other research communities. Specifically, we describe 96 new corpora released in 2018-2020 to date, a new technology evaluation campaign, ongoing activities to support multiple common task human language technology programs, and innovations to advance the methodology of language data collection and annotation.

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Morphological Segmentation for Low Resource Languages
Justin Mott | Ann Bies | Stephanie Strassel | Jordan Kodner | Caitlin Richter | Hongzhi Xu | Mitchell Marcus
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

This paper describes a new morphology resource created by Linguistic Data Consortium and the University of Pennsylvania for the DARPA LORELEI Program. The data consists of approximately 2000 tokens annotated for morphological segmentation in each of 9 low resource languages, along with root information for 7 of the languages. The languages annotated show a broad diversity of typological features. A minimal annotation scheme for segmentation was developed such that it could capture the patterns of a wide range of languages and also be performed reliably by non-linguist annotators. The basic annotation guidelines were designed to be language-independent, but included language-specific morphological paradigms and other specifications. The resulting annotated corpus is designed to support and stimulate the development of unsupervised morphological segmenters and analyzers by providing a gold standard for their evaluation on a more typologically diverse set of languages than has previously been available. By providing root annotation, this corpus is also a step toward supporting research in identifying richer morphological structures than simple morpheme boundaries.

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The SAFE-T Corpus: A New Resource for Simulated Public Safety Communications
Dana Delgado | Kevin Walker | Stephanie Strassel | Karen Jones | Christopher Caruso | David Graff
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

We introduce a new resource, the SAFE-T (Speech Analysis for Emergency Response Technology) Corpus, designed to simulate first-responder communications by inducing high vocal effort and urgent speech with situational background noise in a game-based collection protocol. Linguistic Data Consortium developed the SAFE-T Corpus to support the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) OpenSAT (Speech Analytic Technologies) evaluation series, whose goal is to advance speech analytic technologies including automatic speech recognition, speech activity detection and keyword search in multiple domains including simulated public safety communications data. The corpus comprises over 300 hours of audio from 115 unique speakers engaged in a collaborative problem-solving activity representative of public safety communications in terms of speech content, noise types and noise levels. Portions of the corpus have been used in the OpenSAT 2019 evaluation and the full corpus will be published in the LDC catalog. We describe the design and implementation of the SAFE-T Corpus collection, discuss the approach of capturing spontaneous speech from study participants through game-based speech collection, and report on the collection results including several challenges associated with the collection.

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Call My Net 2: A New Resource for Speaker Recognition
Karen Jones | Stephanie Strassel | Kevin Walker | Jonathan Wright
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

We introduce the Call My Net 2 (CMN2) Corpus, a new resource for speaker recognition featuring Tunisian Arabic conversations between friends and family, incorporating both traditional telephony and VoIP data. The corpus contains data from over 400 Tunisian Arabic speakers collected via a custom-built platform deployed in Tunis, with each speaker making 10 or more calls each lasting up to 10 minutes. Calls include speech in various realistic and natural acoustic settings, both noisy and non-noisy. Speakers used a variety of handsets, including landline and mobile devices, and made VoIP calls from tablets or computers. All calls were subject to a series of manual and automatic quality checks, including speech duration, audio quality, language identity and speaker identity. The CMN2 corpus has been used in two NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluations (SRE18 and SRE19), and the SRE test sets as well as the full CMN2 corpus will be published in the Linguistic Data Consortium Catalog. We describe CMN2 corpus requirements, the telephone collection platform, and procedures for call collection. We review properties of the CMN2 dataset and discuss features of the corpus that distinguish it from prior SRE collection efforts, including some of the technical challenges encountered with collecting VoIP data.

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Basic Language Resources for 31 Languages (Plus English): The LORELEI Representative and Incident Language Packs
Jennifer Tracey | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the 1st Joint Workshop on Spoken Language Technologies for Under-resourced languages (SLTU) and Collaboration and Computing for Under-Resourced Languages (CCURL)

This paper documents and describes the thirty-one basic language resource packs created for the DARPA LORELEI program for use in development and testing of systems capable of providing language-independent situational awareness in emerging scenarios in a low resource language context. Twenty-four Representative Language Packs cover a broad range of language families and typologies, providing large volumes of monolingual and parallel text, smaller volumes of entity and semantic annotations, and a variety of grammatical resources and tools designed to support research into language universals and cross-language transfer. Seven Incident Language Packs provide test data to evaluate system capabilities on a previously unseen low resource language. We discuss the makeup of Representative and Incident Language Packs, the methods used to produce them, and the evolution of their design and implementation over the course of the multi-year LORELEI program. We conclude with a summary of the final language packs including their low-cost publication in the LDC catalog.

2019

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Corpus Building for Low Resource Languages in the DARPA LORELEI Program
Jennifer Tracey | Stephanie Strassel | Ann Bies | Zhiyi Song | Michael Arrigo | Kira Griffitt | Dana Delgado | Dave Graff | Seth Kulick | Justin Mott | Neil Kuster
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Technologies for MT of Low Resource Languages

2018

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Laying the Groundwork for Knowledge Base Population: Nine Years of Linguistic Resources for TAC KBP
Jeremy Getman | Joe Ellis | Stephanie Strassel | Zhiyi Song | Jennifer Tracey
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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Simple Semantic Annotation and Situation Frames: Two Approaches to Basic Text Understanding in LORELEI
Kira Griffitt | Jennifer Tracey | Ann Bies | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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From ‘Solved Problems’ to New Challenges: A Report on LDC Activities
Christopher Cieri | Mark Liberman | Stephanie Strassel | Denise DiPersio | Jonathan Wright | Andrea Mazzucchi
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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Cross-Document, Cross-Language Event Coreference Annotation Using Event Hoppers
Zhiyi Song | Ann Bies | Justin Mott | Xuansong Li | Stephanie Strassel | Christopher Caruso
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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VAST: A Corpus of Video Annotation for Speech Technologies
Jennifer Tracey | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

2016

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Large Multi-lingual, Multi-level and Multi-genre Annotation Corpus
Xuansong Li | Martha Palmer | Nianwen Xue | Lance Ramshaw | Mohamed Maamouri | Ann Bies | Kathryn Conger | Stephen Grimes | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

High accuracy for automated translation and information retrieval calls for linguistic annotations at various language levels. The plethora of informal internet content sparked the demand for porting state-of-art natural language processing (NLP) applications to new social media as well as diverse language adaptation. Effort launched by the BOLT (Broad Operational Language Translation) program at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) successfully addressed the internet information with enhanced NLP systems. BOLT aims for automated translation and linguistic analysis for informal genres of text and speech in online and in-person communication. As a part of this program, the Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) developed valuable linguistic resources in support of the training and evaluation of such new technologies. This paper focuses on methodologies, infrastructure, and procedure for developing linguistic annotation at various language levels, including Treebank (TB), word alignment (WA), PropBank (PB), and co-reference (CoRef). Inspired by the OntoNotes approach with adaptations to the tasks to reflect the goals and scope of the BOLT project, this effort has introduced more annotation types of informal and free-style genres in English, Chinese and Egyptian Arabic. The corpus produced is by far the largest multi-lingual, multi-level and multi-genre annotation corpus of informal text and speech.

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Uzbek-English and Turkish-English Morpheme Alignment Corpora
Xuansong Li | Jennifer Tracey | Stephen Grimes | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

Morphologically-rich languages pose problems for machine translation (MT) systems, including word-alignment errors, data sparsity and multiple affixes. Current alignment models at word-level do not distinguish words and morphemes, thus yielding low-quality alignment and subsequently affecting end translation quality. Models using morpheme-level alignment can reduce the vocabulary size of morphologically-rich languages and overcomes data sparsity. The alignment data based on smallest units reveals subtle language features and enhances translation quality. Recent research proves such morpheme-level alignment (MA) data to be valuable linguistic resources for SMT, particularly for languages with rich morphology. In support of this research trend, the Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) created Uzbek-English and Turkish-English alignment data which are manually aligned at the morpheme level. This paper describes the creation of MA corpora, including alignment and tagging process and approaches, highlighting annotation challenges and specific features of languages with rich morphology. The light tagging annotation on the alignment layer adds extra value to the MA data, facilitating users in flexibly tailoring the data for various MT model training.

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LORELEI Language Packs: Data, Tools, and Resources for Technology Development in Low Resource Languages
Stephanie Strassel | Jennifer Tracey
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

In this paper, we describe the textual linguistic resources in nearly 3 dozen languages being produced by Linguistic Data Consortium for DARPA’s LORELEI (Low Resource Languages for Emergent Incidents) Program. The goal of LORELEI is to improve the performance of human language technologies for low-resource languages and enable rapid re-training of such technologies for new languages, with a focus on the use case of deployment of resources in sudden emergencies such as natural disasters. Representative languages have been selected to provide broad typological coverage for training, and surprise incident languages for testing will be selected over the course of the program. Our approach treats the full set of language packs as a coherent whole, maintaining LORELEI-wide specifications, tagsets, and guidelines, while allowing for adaptation to the specific needs created by each language. Each representative language corpus, therefore, both stands on its own as a resource for the specific language and forms part of a large multilingual resource for broader cross-language technology development.

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Parallel Chinese-English Entities, Relations and Events Corpora
Justin Mott | Ann Bies | Zhiyi Song | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

This paper introduces the parallel Chinese-English Entities, Relations and Events (ERE) corpora developed by Linguistic Data Consortium under the DARPA Deep Exploration and Filtering of Text (DEFT) Program. Original Chinese newswire and discussion forum documents are annotated for two versions of the ERE task. The texts are manually translated into English and then annotated for the same ERE tasks on the English translation, resulting in a rich parallel resource that has utility for performers within the DEFT program, for participants in NIST’s Knowledge Base Population evaluations, and for cross-language projection research more generally.

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The Query of Everything: Developing Open-Domain, Natural-Language Queries for BOLT Information Retrieval
Kira Griffitt | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

The DARPA BOLT Information Retrieval evaluations target open-domain natural-language queries over a large corpus of informal text in English, Chinese and Egyptian Arabic. We outline the goals of BOLT IR, comparing it with the prior GALE Distillation task. After discussing the properties of the BOLT IR corpus, we provide a detailed description of the query creation process, contrasting the summary query format presented to systems at run time with the full query format created by annotators. We describe the relevance criteria used to assess BOLT system responses, highlighting the evolution of the procedures used over the three evaluation phases. We provide a detailed review of the decision points model for relevance assessment introduced during Phase 2, and conclude with information about inter-assessor consistency achieved with the decision points assessment model.

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Multi-language Speech Collection for NIST LRE
Karen Jones | Stephanie Strassel | Kevin Walker | David Graff | Jonathan Wright
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

The Multi-language Speech (MLS) Corpus supports NIST’s Language Recognition Evaluation series by providing new conversational telephone speech and broadcast narrowband data in 20 languages/dialects. The corpus was built with the intention of testing system performance in the matter of distinguishing closely related or confusable linguistic varieties, and careful manual auditing of collected data was an important aspect of this work. This paper lists the specific data requirements for the collection and provides both a commentary on the rationale for those requirements as well as an outline of the various steps taken to ensure all goals were met as specified. LDC conducted a large-scale recruitment effort involving the implementation of candidate assessment and interview techniques suitable for hiring a large contingent of telecommuting workers, and this recruitment effort is discussed in detail. We also describe the telephone and broadcast collection infrastructure and protocols, and provide details of the steps taken to pre-process collected data prior to auditing. Finally, annotation training, procedures and outcomes are presented in detail.

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Selection Criteria for Low Resource Language Programs
Christopher Cieri | Mike Maxwell | Stephanie Strassel | Jennifer Tracey
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

This paper documents and describes the criteria used to select languages for study within programs that include low resource languages whether given that label or another similar one. It focuses on five US common task, Human Language Technology research and development programs in which the authors have provided information or consulting related to the choice of language. The paper does not describe the actual selection process which is the responsibility of program management and highly specific to a program’s individual goals and context. Instead it concentrates on the data and criteria that have been considered relevant previously with the thought that future program managers and their consultants may adapt these and apply them with different prioritization to future programs.

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A Comparison of Event Representations in DEFT
Ann Bies | Zhiyi Song | Jeremy Getman | Joe Ellis | Justin Mott | Stephanie Strassel | Martha Palmer | Teruko Mitamura | Marjorie Freedman | Heng Ji | Tim O’Gorman
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Events

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Event Nugget and Event Coreference Annotation
Zhiyi Song | Ann Bies | Stephanie Strassel | Joe Ellis | Teruko Mitamura | Hoa Trang Dang | Yukari Yamakawa | Sue Holm
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Events

2015

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A New Dataset and Evaluation for Belief/Factuality
Vinodkumar Prabhakaran | Tomas By | Julia Hirschberg | Owen Rambow | Samira Shaikh | Tomek Strzalkowski | Jennifer Tracey | Michael Arrigo | Rupayan Basu | Micah Clark | Adam Dalton | Mona Diab | Louise Guthrie | Anna Prokofieva | Stephanie Strassel | Gregory Werner | Yorick Wilks | Janyce Wiebe
Proceedings of the Fourth Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics

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Event Nugget Annotation: Processes and Issues
Teruko Mitamura | Yukari Yamakawa | Susan Holm | Zhiyi Song | Ann Bies | Seth Kulick | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the The 3rd Workshop on EVENTS: Definition, Detection, Coreference, and Representation

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From Light to Rich ERE: Annotation of Entities, Relations, and Events
Zhiyi Song | Ann Bies | Stephanie Strassel | Tom Riese | Justin Mott | Joe Ellis | Jonathan Wright | Seth Kulick | Neville Ryant | Xiaoyi Ma
Proceedings of the The 3rd Workshop on EVENTS: Definition, Detection, Coreference, and Representation

2014

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Collecting Natural SMS and Chat Conversations in Multiple Languages: The BOLT Phase 2 Corpus
Zhiyi Song | Stephanie Strassel | Haejoong Lee | Kevin Walker | Jonathan Wright | Jennifer Garland | Dana Fore | Brian Gainor | Preston Cabe | Thomas Thomas | Brendan Callahan | Ann Sawyer
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

The DARPA BOLT Program develops systems capable of allowing English speakers to retrieve and understand information from informal foreign language genres. Phase 2 of the program required large volumes of naturally occurring informal text (SMS) and chat messages from individual users in multiple languages to support evaluation of machine translation systems. We describe the design and implementation of a robust collection system capable of capturing both live and archived SMS and chat conversations from willing participants. We also discuss the challenges recruitment at a time when potential participants have acute and growing concerns about their personal privacy in the realm of digital communication, and we outline the techniques adopted to confront those challenges. Finally, we review the properties of the resulting BOLT Phase 2 Corpus, which comprises over 6.5 million words of naturally-occurring chat and SMS in English, Chinese and Egyptian Arabic.

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The RATS Collection: Supporting HLT Research with Degraded Audio Data
David Graff | Kevin Walker | Stephanie Strassel | Xiaoyi Ma | Karen Jones | Ann Sawyer
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

The DARPA RATS program was established to foster development of language technology systems that can perform well on speaker-to-speaker communications over radio channels that evince a wide range in the type and extent of signal variability and acoustic degradation. Creating suitable corpora to address this need poses an equally wide range of challenges for the collection, annotation and quality assessment of relevant data. This paper describes the LDC’s multi-year effort to build the RATS data collection, summarizes the content and properties of the resulting corpora, and discusses the novel problems and approaches involved in ensuring that the data would satisfy its intended use, to provide speech recordings and annotations for training and evaluating HLT systems that perform 4 specific tasks on difficult radio channels: Speech Activity Detection (SAD), Language Identification (LID), Speaker Identification (SID) and Keyword Spotting (KWS).

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New Directions for Language Resource Development and Distribution
Christopher Cieri | Denise DiPersio | Mark Liberman | Andrea Mazzucchi | Stephanie Strassel | Jonathan Wright
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

Despite the growth in the number of linguistic data centers around the world, their accomplishments and expansions and the advances they have help enable, the language resources that exist are a small fraction of those required to meet the goals of Human Language Technologies (HLT) for the world’s languages and the promises they offer: broad access to knowledge, direct communication across language boundaries and engagement in a global community. Using the Linguistic Data Consortium as a focus case, this paper sketches the progress of data centers, summarizes recent activities and then turns to several issues that have received inadequate attention and proposes some new approaches to their resolution.

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A Comparison of the Events and Relations Across ACE, ERE, TAC-KBP, and FrameNet Annotation Standards
Jacqueline Aguilar | Charley Beller | Paul McNamee | Benjamin Van Durme | Stephanie Strassel | Zhiyi Song | Joe Ellis
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on EVENTS: Definition, Detection, Coreference, and Representation

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Transliteration of Arabizi into Arabic Orthography: Developing a Parallel Annotated Arabizi-Arabic Script SMS/Chat Corpus
Ann Bies | Zhiyi Song | Mohamed Maamouri | Stephen Grimes | Haejoong Lee | Jonathan Wright | Stephanie Strassel | Nizar Habash | Ramy Eskander | Owen Rambow
Proceedings of the EMNLP 2014 Workshop on Arabic Natural Language Processing (ANLP)

2012

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Parallel Aligned Treebanks at LDC: New Challenges Interfacing Existing Infrastructures
Xuansong Li | Stephanie Strassel | Stephen Grimes | Safa Ismael | Mohamed Maamouri | Ann Bies | Nianwen Xue
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

Parallel aligned treebanks (PAT) are linguistic corpora annotated with morphological and syntactic structures that are aligned at sentence as well as sub-sentence levels. They are valuable resources for improving machine translation (MT) quality. Recently, there has been an increasing demand for such data, especially for divergent language pairs. The Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) and its academic partners have been developing Arabic-English and Chinese-English PATs for several years. This paper describes the PAT corpus creation effort for the program GALE (Global Autonomous Language Exploitation) and introduces the potential issues of scaling up this PAT effort for the program BOLT (Broad Operational Language Translation). Based on existing infrastructures and in the light of current annotation process, challenges and approaches, we are exploring new methodologies to address emerging challenges in constructing PATs, including data volume bottlenecks, dialect issues of Arabic languages, and new genre features related to rapidly changing social media. Preliminary experimental results are presented to show the feasibility of the approaches proposed.

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Linguistic Resources for Entity Linking Evaluation: from Monolingual to Cross-lingual
Xuansong Li | Stephanie Strassel | Heng Ji | Kira Griffitt | Joe Ellis
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

To advance information extraction and question answering technologies toward a more realistic path, the U.S. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) initiated the KBP (Knowledge Base Population) task as one of the TAC (Text Analysis Conference) evaluation tracks. It aims to encourage research in automatic information extraction of named entities from unstructured texts with the ultimate goal of integrating such information into a structured Knowledge Base. The KBP track consists of two types of evaluation: Named Entity Linking (NEL) and Slot Filling. This paper describes the linguistic resource creation efforts at the Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) in support of Named Entity Linking evaluation of KBP, focusing on annotation methodologies, process, and features of corpora from 2009 to 2011, with a highlighted analysis of the cross-lingual NEL data. Progressing from monolingual to cross-lingual Entity Linking technologies, the 2011 cross-lingual NEL evaluation targeted multilingual capabilities. Annotation accuracy is presented in comparison with system performance, with promising results from cross-lingual entity linking systems.

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Annotation Trees: LDC’s customizable, extensible, scalable, annotation infrastructure
Jonathan Wright | Kira Griffitt | Joe Ellis | Stephanie Strassel | Brendan Callahan
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

In recent months, LDC has developed a web-based annotation infrastructure centered around a tree model of annotations and a Ruby on Rails application called the LDC User Interface (LUI). The effort aims to centralize all annotation into this single platform, which means annotation is always available remotely, with no more software required than a web browser. While the design is monolithic in the sense of handling any number of annotation projects, it is also scalable, as it is distributed over many physical and virtual machines. Furthermore, minimizing customization was a core design principle, and new functionality can be plugged in without writing a full application. The creation and customization of GUIs is itself done through the web interface, without writing code, with the aim of eventually allowing project managers to create a new task without developer intervention. Many of the desirable features follow from the model of annotations as trees, and the operationalization of annotation as tree modification.

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Linguistic Resources for Handwriting Recognition and Translation Evaluation
Zhiyi Song | Safa Ismael | Stephen Grimes | David Doermann | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

We describe efforts to create corpora to support development and evaluation of handwriting recognition and translation technology. LDC has developed a stable pipeline and infrastructures for collecting and annotating handwriting linguistic resources to support the evaluation of MADCAT and OpenHaRT. We collect and annotate handwritten samples of pre-processed Arabic and Chinese data that has been already translated in English that is used in the GALE program. To date, LDC has recruited more than 600 scribes and collected, annotated and released more than 225,000 handwriting images. Most linguistic resources created for these programs will be made available to the larger research community by publishing in LDC's catalog. The phase 1 MADCAT corpus is now available.

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Creating HAVIC: Heterogeneous Audio Visual Internet Collection
Stephanie Strassel | Amanda Morris | Jonathan Fiscus | Christopher Caruso | Haejoong Lee | Paul Over | James Fiumara | Barbara Shaw | Brian Antonishek | Martial Michel
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

Linguistic Data Consortium and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are collaborating to create a large, heterogeneous annotated multimodal corpus to support research in multimodal event detection and related technologies. The HAVIC (Heterogeneous Audio Visual Internet Collection) Corpus will ultimately consist of several thousands of hours of unconstrained user-generated multimedia content. HAVIC has been designed with an eye toward providing increased challenges for both acoustic and video processing technologies, focusing on multi-dimensional variation inherent in user-generated multimedia content. To date the HAVIC corpus has been used to support the NIST 2010 and 2011 TRECVID Multimedia Event Detection (MED) Evaluations. Portions of the corpus are expected to be released in LDC's catalog in the coming year, with the remaining segments being published over time after their use in the ongoing MED evaluations.

2010

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Document Image Collection Using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk
Audrey Le | Jerome Ajot | Mark Przybocki | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010 Workshop on Creating Speech and Language Data with Amazon’s Mechanical Turk

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An Evaluation of Technologies for Knowledge Base Population
Paul McNamee | Hoa Trang Dang | Heather Simpson | Patrick Schone | Stephanie M. Strassel
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

Previous content extraction evaluations have neglected to address problems which complicate the incorporation of extracted information into an existing knowledge base. Previous question answering evaluations have likewise avoided tasks such as explicit disambiguation of target entities and handling a fixed set of questions about entities without previous determination of possible answers. In 2009 NIST conducted a Knowledge Base Population track at its Text Analysis Conference to unite the content extraction and question answering communities and jointly explore some of these issues. This exciting new evaluation attracted 13 teams from 6 countries that submitted results in two tasks, Entity Linking and Slot Filling. This paper explains the motivation and design of the tasks, describes the language resources that were developed for this evaluation, offers comparisons to previous community evaluations, and briefly summarizes the performance obtained by systems. We also identify relevant issues pertaining to target selection, challenging queries, and performance measures.

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A Very Large Scale Mandarin Chinese Broadcast Corpus for GALE Project
Yi Liu | Pascale Fung | Yongsheng Yang | Denise DiPersio | Meghan Glenn | Stephanie Strassel | Christopher Cieri
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

In this paper, we present the design, collection, transcription and analysis of a Mandarin Chinese Broadcast Collection of over 3000 hours. The data was collected by Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) in China on a cable TV and satellite transmission platform established in support of the DARPA Global Autonomous Language Exploitation (GALE) program. The collection includes broadcast news (BN) and broadcast conversation (BC) including talk shows, roundtable discussions, call-in shows, editorials and other conversational programs that focus on news and current events. HKUST also collects detailed information about all recorded programs. A subset of BC and BN recordings are manually transcribed with standard Chinese characters in UTF-8 encoding, using specific mark-ups for a small set of spontaneous and conversational speech phenomena. The collection is among the largest and first of its kind for Mandarin Chinese Broadcast speech, providing abundant and diverse samples for Mandarin speech recognition and other application-dependent tasks, such as spontaneous speech processing and recognition, topic detection, information retrieval, and speaker recognition. HKUST’s acoustic analysis of 500 hours of the speech and transcripts demonstrates the positive impact this data could have on system performance.

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Enriching Word Alignment with Linguistic Tags
Xuansong Li | Niyu Ge | Stephen Grimes | Stephanie M. Strassel | Kazuaki Maeda
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

Incorporating linguistic knowledge into word alignment is becoming increasingly important for current approaches in statistical machine translation research. To improve automatic word alignment and ultimately machine translation quality, an annotation framework is jointly proposed by LDC (Linguistic Data Consortium) and IBM. The framework enriches word alignment corpora to capture contextual, syntactic and language-specific features by introducing linguistic tags to the alignment annotation. Two annotation schemes constitute the framework: alignment and tagging. The alignment scheme aims to identify minimum translation units and translation relations by using minimum-match and attachment annotation approaches. A set of word tags and alignment link tags are designed in the tagging scheme to describe these translation units and relations. The framework produces a solid ground-level alignment base upon which larger translation unit alignment can be automatically induced. To test the soundness of this work, evaluation is performed on a pilot annotation, resulting in inter- and intra- annotator agreement of above 90%. To date LDC has produced manual word alignment and tagging on 32,823 Chinese-English sentences following this framework.

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Enhanced Infrastructure for Creation and Collection of Translation Resources
Zhiyi Song | Stephanie Strassel | Gary Krug | Kazuaki Maeda
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

Statistical Machine Translation (MT) systems have achieved impressive results in recent years, due in large part to the increasing availability of parallel text for system training and development. This paper describes recent efforts at Linguistic Data Consortium to create linguistic resources for MT, including corpora, specifications and resource infrastructure. We review LDC's three-pronged ap-proach to parallel text corpus development (acquisition of existing parallel text from known repositories, harvesting and aligning of potential parallel documents from the web, and manual creation of parallel text by professional translators), and describe recent adap-tations that have enabled significant expansions in the scope, variety, quality, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of translation resource creation at LDC.

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Transcription Methods for Consistency, Volume and Efficiency
Meghan Lammie Glenn | Stephanie M. Strassel | Haejoong Lee | Kazuaki Maeda | Ramez Zakhary | Xuansong Li
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

This paper describes recent efforts at Linguistic Data Consortium at the University of Pennsylvania to create manual transcripts as a shared resource for human language technology research and evaluation. Speech recognition and related technologies in particular call for substantial volumes of transcribed speech for use in system development, and for human gold standard references for evaluating performance over time. Over the past several years LDC has developed a number of transcription approaches to support the varied goals of speech technology evaluation programs in multiple languages and genres. We describe each transcription method in detail, and report on the results of a comparative analysis of transcriber consistency and efficiency, for two transcription methods in three languages and five genres. Our findings suggest that transcripts for planned speech are generally more consistent than those for spontaneous speech, and that careful transcription methods result in higher rates of agreement when compared to quick transcription methods. We conclude with a general discussion of factors contributing to transcription quality, efficiency and consistency.

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The DARPA Machine Reading Program - Encouraging Linguistic and Reasoning Research with a Series of Reading Tasks
Stephanie Strassel | Dan Adams | Henry Goldberg | Jonathan Herr | Ron Keesing | Daniel Oblinger | Heather Simpson | Robert Schrag | Jonathan Wright
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

The goal of DARPA’s Machine Reading (MR) program is nothing less than making the world’s natural language corpora available for formal processing. Most text processing research has focused on locating mission-relevant text (information retrieval) and on techniques for enriching text by transforming it to other forms of text (translation, summarization) ― always for use by humans. In contrast, MR will make knowledge contained in text available in forms that machines can use for automated processing. This will be done with little human intervention. Machines will learn to read from a few examples and they will read to learn what they need in order to answer questions or perform some reasoning task. Three independent Reading Teams are building universal text engines which will capture knowledge from naturally occurring text and transform it into the formal representations used by Artificial Intelligence. An Evaluation Team is selecting and annotating text corpora with task domain concepts, creating model reasoning systems with which the reading systems will interact, and establishing question-answer sets and evaluation protocols to measure progress toward this goal. We describe development of the MR evaluation framework, including test protocols, linguistic resources and technical infrastructure.

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Wikipedia and the Web of Confusable Entities: Experience from Entity Linking Query Creation for TAC 2009 Knowledge Base Population
Heather Simpson | Stephanie Strassel | Robert Parker | Paul McNamee
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

The Text Analysis Conference (TAC) is a series of Natural Language Processing evaluation workshops organized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The Knowledge Base Population (KBP) track at TAC 2009, a hybrid descendant of the TREC Question Answering track and the Automated Content Extraction (ACE) evaluation program, is designed to support development of systems that are capable of automatically populating a knowledge base with information about entities mined from unstructured text. An important component of the KBP evaluation is the Entity Linking task, where systems must accurately associate text mentions of unknown Person (PER), Organization (ORG), and Geopolitical (GPE) names to entries in a knowledge base. Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) at the University of Pennsylvania creates and distributes linguistic resources including data, annotations, system assessment, tools and specifications for the TAC KBP evaluations. This paper describes the 2009 resource creation efforts, with particular focus on the selection and development of named entity mentions for the Entity Linking task evaluation.

2008

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Bridging the Gap between Linguists and Technology Developers: Large-Scale, Sociolinguistic Annotation for Dialect and Speaker Recognition
Christopher Cieri | Stephanie Strassel | Meghan Glenn | Reva Schwartz | Wade Shen | Joseph Campbell
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

Recent years have seen increased interest within the speaker recognition community in high-level features including, for example, lexical choice, idiomatic expressions or syntactic structures. The promise of speaker recognition in forensic applications drives development toward systems robust to channel differences by selecting features inherently robust to channel difference. Within the language recognition community, there is growing interest in differentiating not only languages but also mutually intelligible dialects of a single language. Decades of research in dialectology suggest that high-level features can enable systems to cluster speakers according to the dialects they speak. The Phanotics (Phonetic Annotation of Typicality in Conversational Speech) project seeks to identify high-level features characteristic of American dialects, annotate a corpus for these features, use the data to dialect recognition systems and also use the categorization to create better models for speaker recognition. The data, once published, should be useful to other developers of speaker and dialect recognition systems and to dialectologists and sociolinguists. We expect the methods will generalize well beyond the speakers, dialects, and languages discussed here and should, if successful, provide a model for how linguists and technology developers can collaborate in the future for the benefit of both groups and toward a deeper understanding of how languages vary and change.

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Quick Rich Transcriptions of Arabic Broadcast News Speech Data
Chomicha Bendahman | Meghan Glenn | Djamel Mostefa | Niklas Paulsson | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

This paper describes the collect and transcription of a large set of Arabic broadcast news speech data. A total of more than 2000 hours of data was transcribed. The transcription factor for transcribing the broadcast news data has been reduced using a method such as Quick Rich Transcription (QRTR) as well as reducing the number of quality controls performed on the data. The data was collected from several Arabic TV and radio sources and from both Modern Standard Arabic and dialectal Arabic. The orthographic transcriptions included segmentation, speaker turns, topics, sentence unit types and a minimal noise mark-up. The transcripts were produced as a part of the GALE project.

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New Resources for Document Classification, Analysis and Translation Technologies
Stephanie Strassel | Lauren Friedman | Safa Ismael | Linda Brandschain
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

The goal of the DARPA MADCAT (Multilingual Automatic Document Classification Analysis and Translation) Program is to automatically convert foreign language text images into English transcripts, for use by humans and downstream applications. The first phase the program focuses on translation of handwritten Arabic documents. Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) is creating publicly available linguistic resources for MADCAT technologies, on a scale and richness not previously available. Corpora will consist of existing LDC corpora and data donations from MADCAT partners, plus new data collection to provide high quality material for evaluation and to address strategic gaps (for genre, dialect, image quality, etc.) in the existing resources. Training and test data properties will expand over time to encompass a wide range of topics and genres: letters, diaries, training manuals, brochures, signs, ledgers, memos, instructions, postcards and forms among others. Data will be ground truthed, with line, word and token segmentation and zoning, and translations and word alignments will be produced for a subset. Evaluation data will be carefully selected from the available data pools and high quality references will be produced, which can be used to compare MADCAT system performance against the human-produced gold standard.

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Management of Large Annotation Projects Involving Multiple Human Judges: a Case Study of GALE Machine Translation Post-editing
Meghan Lammie Glenn | Stephanie Strassel | Lauren Friedman | Haejoong Lee | Shawn Medero
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

Managing large groups of human judges to perform any annotation task is a challenge. Linguistic Data Consortium coordinated the creation of manual machine translation post-editing results for the DARPA Global Autonomous Language Exploration Program. Machine translation is one of three core technology components for GALE, which includes an annual MT evaluation administered by National Institute of Standards and Technology. Among the training and test data LDC creates for the GALE program are gold standard translations for system evaluation. The GALE machine translation system evaluation metric is edit distance, measured by HTER (human translation edit rate), which calculates the minimum number of changes required for highly-trained human editors to correct MT output so that it has the same meaning as the reference translation. LDC has been responsible for overseeing the post-editing process for GALE. We describe some of the accomplishments and challenges of completing the post-editing effort, including developing a new web-based annotation workflow system, and recruiting and training human judges for the task. In addition, we suggest that the workflow system developed for post-editing could be ported efficiently to other annotation efforts.

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Entity Translation and Alignment in the ACE-07 ET Task
Zhiyi Song | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

Entities - people, organizations, locations and the like - have long been a central focus of natural language processing technology development, since entities convey essential content in human languages. For multilingual systems, accurate translation of named entities and their descriptors is critical. LDC produced Entity Translation pilot data to support the ACE ET 2007 Evaluation and the current paper delves more deeply into the entity alignment issue across languages, combining the automatic alignment techniques developed for ACE-07 with manual alignment. Altogether 84% of the Chinese-English entity mentions and 74% of the Arabic-English entity mentions are perfect aligned. The results of this investigation offer several important insights. Automatic alignment algorithms predicted that perfect alignment for the ET corpus was likely to be no greater than 55%; perfect alignment on the 15 pilot documents was predicted at 62.5%. Our results suggest the actual perfect alignment rate is substantially higher (82% average, 92% for NAM entities). The careful analysis of alignment errors also suggests strategies for human translation to support the ET task; for instance, translators might be given additional guidance about preferred treatments of name versus nominal translation. These results can also contribute to refined methods of evaluating ET systems.

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Linguistic Resources and Evaluation Techniques for Evaluation of Cross-Document Automatic Content Extraction
Stephanie Strassel | Mark Przybocki | Kay Peterson | Zhiyi Song | Kazuaki Maeda
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

The NIST Automatic Content Extraction (ACE) Evaluation expands its focus in 2008 to encompass the challenge of cross-document and cross-language global integration and reconciliation of information. While past ACE evaluations have been limited to local (within-document) detection and disambiguation of entities, relations and events, the current evaluation adds global (cross-document and cross-language) entity disambiguation tasks for Arabic and English. This paper presents the 2008 ACE XDoc evaluation task and associated infrastructure. We describe the linguistic resources created by LDC to support the evaluation, focusing on new approaches required for data selection, data processing, annotation task definitions and annotation software, and we conclude with a discussion of the metrics developed by NIST to support the evaluation.

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Annotation Tool Development for Large-Scale Corpus Creation Projects at the Linguistic Data Consortium
Kazuaki Maeda | Haejoong Lee | Shawn Medero | Julie Medero | Robert Parker | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

The Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) creates a variety of linguistic resources - data, annotations, tools, standards and best practices - for many sponsored projects. The programming staff at LDC has created the tools and technical infrastructures to support the data creation efforts for these projects, creating tools and technical infrastructures for all aspects of data creation projects: data scouting, data collection, data selection, annotation, search, data tracking and worklow management. This paper introduces a number of samples of LDC programming staff’s work, with particular focus on the recent additions and updates to the suite of software tools developed by LDC. Tools introduced include the GScout Web Data Scouting Tool, LDC Data Selection Toolkit, ACK - Annotation Collection Kit, XTrans Transcription and Speech Annotation Tool, GALE Distillation Toolkit, and the GALE MT Post Editing Workflow Management System.

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Creating Sentence-Aligned Parallel Text Corpora from a Large Archive of Potential Parallel Text using BITS and Champollion
Kazuaki Maeda | Xiaoyi Ma | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08)

Parallel text is one of the most valuable resources for development of statistical machine translation systems and other NLP applications. The Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) has supported research on statistical machine translations and other NLP applications by creating and distributing a large amount of parallel text resources for the research communities. However, manual translations are very costly, and the number of known providers that offer complete parallel text is limited. This paper presents a cost effective approach to identify parallel document pairs from sources that provide potential parallel text - namely, sources that may contain whole or partial translations of documents in the source language - using the BITS and Champollion parallel text alignment systems developed by LDC.

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Identifying Common Challenges for Human and Machine Translation: A Case Study from the GALE Program
Lauren Friedman | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the 8th Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas: Government and Commercial Uses of MT

The dramatic improvements shown by statistical machine translation systems in recent years clearly demonstrate the benefits of having large quantities of manually translated parallel text for system training and development. And while many competing evaluation metrics exist to evaluate MT technology, most of those methods also crucially rely on the existence of one or more high quality human translations to benchmark system performance. Given the importance of human translations in this framework, understanding the particular challenges of human translation-for-MT is key, as is comprehending the relative strengths and weaknesses of human versus machine translators in the context of an MT evaluation. Vanni (2000) argued that the metric used for evaluation of competence in human language learners may be applicable to MT evaluation; we apply similar thinking to improve the prediction of MT performance, which is currently unreliable. In the current paper we explore an alternate model based upon a set of genre-defining features that prove to be consistently challenging for both humans and MT systems.

2007

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Linguistic resources in support of various evaluation metrics
Christopher Cieri | Stephanie Strassel | Meghan Lammie Glenn | Lauren Friedman
Proceedings of the Workshop on Automatic procedures in MT evaluation

2006

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An Efficient Approach to Gold-Standard Annotation: Decision Points for Complex Tasks
Julie Medero | Kazuaki Maeda | Stephanie Strassel | Christopher Walker
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’06)

Inter-annotator consistency is a concern for any corpus building effort relying on human annotation. Adjudication is as effective way to locate and correct discrepancies of various kinds. It can also be both difficult and time-consuming. This paper introduces Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC)’s model for decision point-based annotation and adjudication, and describes the annotation tools developed to enable this approach for the Automatic Content Extraction (ACE) Program. Using a customized user interface incorporating decision points, we improved adjudication efficiency over 2004 annotation rates, despite increased annotation task complexity. We examine the factors that lead to more efficient, less demanding adjudication. We further discuss how a decision point model might be applied to annotation tools designed for a wide range of annotation tasks. Finally, we consider issues of annotation tool customization versus development time in the context of a decision point model.

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Integrated Linguistic Resources for Language Exploitation Technologies
Stephanie Strassel | Christopher Cieri | Andrew Cole | Denise Dipersio | Mark Liberman | Xiaoyi Ma | Mohamed Maamouri | Kazuaki Maeda
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’06)

Linguistic Data Consortium has recently embarked on an effort to create integrated linguistic resources and related infrastructure for language exploitation technologies within the DARPA GALE (Global Autonomous Language Exploitation) Program. GALE targets an end-to-end system consisting of three major engines: Transcription, Translation and Distillation. Multilingual speech or text from a variety of genres is taken as input and English text is given as output, with information of interest presented in an integrated and consolidated fashion to the end user. GALE's goals require a quantum leap in the performance of human language technology, while also demanding solutions that are more intelligent, more robust, more adaptable, more efficient and more integrated. LDC has responded to this challenge with a comprehensive approach to linguistic resource development designed to support GALE's research and evaluation needs and to provide lasting resources for the larger Human Language Technology community.

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Linguistic Resources for Speech Parsing
Ann Bies | Stephanie Strassel | Haejoong Lee | Kazuaki Maeda | Seth Kulick | Yang Liu | Mary Harper | Matthew Lease
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’06)

We report on the success of a two-pass approach to annotating metadata, speech effects and syntactic structure in English conversational speech: separately annotating transcribed speech for structural metadata, or structural events, (fillers, speech repairs ( or edit dysfluencies) and SUs, or syntactic/semantic units) and for syntactic structure (treebanking constituent structure and shallow argument structure). The two annotations were then combined into a single representation. Certain alignment issues between the two types of annotation led to the discovery and correction of annotation errors in each, resulting in a more accurate and useful resource. The development of this corpus was motivated by the need to have both metadata and syntactic structure annotated in order to support synergistic work on speech parsing and structural event detection. Automatic detection of these speech phenomena would simultaneously improve parsing accuracy and provide a mechanism for cleaning up transcriptions for downstream text processing. Similarly, constraints imposed by text processing systems such as parsers can be used to help improve identification of disfluencies and sentence boundaries. This paper reports on our efforts to develop a linguistic resource providing both spoken metadata and syntactic structure information, and describes the resulting corpus of English conversational speech.

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A New Phase in Annotation Tool Development at the Linguistic Data Consortium: The Evolution of the Annotation Graph Toolkit
Kazuaki Maeda | Haejoong Lee | Julie Medero | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’06)

The Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) has created various annotated linguistic data for a variety of common task evaluation programs and projects to create shared linguistic resources. The majority of these annotated linguistic data were created with highly customized annotation tools developed at LDC. The Annotation Graph Toolkit (AGTK) has been used as a primary infrastructure for annotation tool development at LDC in recent years. Thanks to the direct feedback from annotation task designers and annotators in-house, annotation tool development at LDC has entered a new, more mature and productive phase. This paper describes recent additions to LDC's annotation tools that are newly developed or significantly improved since our last report at the Fourth International Conference on Language Resource and Evaluation Conference in 2004. These tools are either directly based on AGTK or share a common philosophy with other AGTK tools.

2004

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The Automatic Content Extraction (ACE) Program – Tasks, Data, and Evaluation
George Doddington | Alexis Mitchell | Mark Przybocki | Lance Ramshaw | Stephanie Strassel | Ralph Weischedel
Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’04)

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Annotation Tools for Large-Scale Corpus Development: Using AGTK at the Linguistic Data Consortium
Kazuaki Maeda | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’04)

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Linguistic Resources for Effective, Affordable, Reusable Speech-to-Text
Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’04)

2003

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Multilingual Resources for Entity Extraction
Stephanie Strassel | Alexis Mitchell
Proceedings of the ACL 2003 Workshop on Multilingual and Mixed-language Named Entity Recognition

2002

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Developing Infrastructure for the Evaluation of Single and Multi-document Summarization Systems in a Cross-lingual Environment
Horacio Saggion | Dragomir Radev | Simone Teufel | Wai Lam | Stephanie M. Strassel
Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’02)

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The DASL Project: a Case Study in Data Re-Annotation and Re-Use
Christopher Cieri | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’02)

2000

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Large, Multilingual, Broadcast News Corpora for Cooperative Research in Topic Detection and Tracking: The TDT-2 and TDT-3 Corpus Efforts
Christopher Cieri | David Graff | Mark Liberman | Nii Martey | Stephanie Strassel
Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’00)

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Quality Control in Large Annotation Projects Involving Multiple Judges: The Case of the TDT Corpora
Stephanie Strassel | David Graff | Nii Martey | Christopher Cieri
Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’00)

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