Stephen Pulman

Also published as: S. G. Pulman, S.G. Pulman, Stephen G. Pulman


2021

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Open-Domain Question Answering Goes Conversational via Question Rewriting
Raviteja Anantha | Svitlana Vakulenko | Zhucheng Tu | Shayne Longpre | Stephen Pulman | Srinivas Chappidi
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

We introduce a new dataset for Question Rewriting in Conversational Context (QReCC), which contains 14K conversations with 80K question-answer pairs. The task in QReCC is to find answers to conversational questions within a collection of 10M web pages (split into 54M passages). Answers to questions in the same conversation may be distributed across several web pages. QReCC provides annotations that allow us to train and evaluate individual subtasks of question rewriting, passage retrieval and reading comprehension required for the end-to-end conversational question answering (QA) task. We report the effectiveness of a strong baseline approach that combines the state-of-the-art model for question rewriting, and competitive models for open-domain QA. Our results set the first baseline for the QReCC dataset with F1 of 19.10, compared to the human upper bound of 75.45, indicating the difficulty of the setup and a large room for improvement.

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Noise Robust Named Entity Understanding for Voice Assistants
Deepak Muralidharan | Joel Ruben Antony Moniz | Sida Gao | Xiao Yang | Justine Kao | Stephen Pulman | Atish Kothari | Ray Shen | Yinying Pan | Vivek Kaul | Mubarak Seyed Ibrahim | Gang Xiang | Nan Dun | Yidan Zhou | Andy O | Yuan Zhang | Pooja Chitkara | Xuan Wang | Alkesh Patel | Kushal Tayal | Roger Zheng | Peter Grasch | Jason D Williams | Lin Li
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Industry Papers

Named Entity Recognition (NER) and Entity Linking (EL) play an essential role in voice assistant interaction, but are challenging due to the special difficulties associated with spoken user queries. In this paper, we propose a novel architecture that jointly solves the NER and EL tasks by combining them in a joint reranking module. We show that our proposed framework improves NER accuracy by up to 3.13% and EL accuracy by up to 3.6% in F1 score. The features used also lead to better accuracies in other natural language understanding tasks, such as domain classification and semantic parsing.

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Using Pause Information for More Accurate Entity Recognition
Sahas Dendukuri | Pooja Chitkara | Joel Ruben Antony Moniz | Xiao Yang | Manos Tsagkias | Stephen Pulman
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Conversational AI

Entity tags in human-machine dialog are integral to natural language understanding (NLU) tasks in conversational assistants. However, current systems struggle to accurately parse spoken queries with the typical use of text input alone, and often fail to understand the user intent. Previous work in linguistics has identified a cross-language tendency for longer speech pauses surrounding nouns as compared to verbs. We demonstrate that the linguistic observation on pauses can be used to improve accuracy in machine-learnt language understanding tasks. Analysis of pauses in French and English utterances from a commercial voice assistant shows the statistically significant difference in pause duration around multi-token entity span boundaries compared to within entity spans. Additionally, in contrast to text-based NLU, we apply pause duration to enrich contextual embeddings to improve shallow parsing of entities. Results show that our proposed novel embeddings improve the relative error rate by up to 8% consistently across three domains for French, without any added annotation or alignment costs to the parser.

2014

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The pragmatics of margin comments: An empirical study
Debora Field | Stephen Pulman | Denise Whitelock
Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications

2013

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Did I really mean that? Applying automatic summarisation techniques to formative feedback
Debora Field | Stephen Pulman | Nicolas Van Labeke | Denise Whitelock | John Richardson
Proceedings of the International Conference Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing RANLP 2013

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Separating Disambiguation from Composition in Distributional Semantics
Dimitri Kartsaklis | Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh | Stephen Pulman
Proceedings of the Seventeenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

2012

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Learning Semantics and Selectional Preference of Adjective-Noun Pairs
Karl Moritz Hermann | Chris Dyer | Phil Blunsom | Stephen Pulman
*SEM 2012: The First Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics – Volume 1: Proceedings of the main conference and the shared task, and Volume 2: Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2012)

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An Unsupervised Ranking Model for Noun-Noun Compositionality
Karl Moritz Hermann | Phil Blunsom | Stephen Pulman
*SEM 2012: The First Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics – Volume 1: Proceedings of the main conference and the shared task, and Volume 2: Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2012)

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A Unified Sentence Space for Categorical Distributional-Compositional Semantics: Theory and Experiments
Dimitri Kartsaklis | Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh | Stephen Pulman
Proceedings of COLING 2012: Posters

2011

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Book Reviews: Automated Grammatical Error Detection for Language Learners by Claudia Leacock, Martin Chodorow, Michael Gamon, and Joel Tetreault
Stephen Pulman
Computational Linguistics, Volume 37, Issue 3 - September 2011

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Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computational Semantics (IWCS 2011)
Johan Bos | Stephen Pulman
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computational Semantics (IWCS 2011)

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Concrete Sentence Spaces for Compositional Distributional Models of Meaning
Edward Grefenstette | Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh | Stephen Clark | Bob Coecke | Stephen Pulman
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computational Semantics (IWCS 2011)

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Semantic Relatedness from Automatically Generated Semantic Networks
Pia-Ramona Wojtinnek | Stephen Pulman
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computational Semantics (IWCS 2011)

2010

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How Was Your Day?
Stephen Pulman | Johan Boye | Marc Cavazza | Cameron Smith | Raúl Santos de la Cámara
Proceedings of the 2010 Workshop on Companionable Dialogue Systems

2009

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Simultaneous Dialogue Act Segmentation and Labelling using Lexical and Syntactic Features
Ramon Granell | Stephen Pulman | Carlos-D. Martínez-Hinarejos
Proceedings of the SIGDIAL 2009 Conference

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Unsupervised Classification of Dialogue Acts using a Dirichlet Process Mixture Model
Nigel Crook | Ramon Granell | Stephen Pulman
Proceedings of the SIGDIAL 2009 Conference

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Multi-entity Sentiment Scoring
Karo Moilanen | Stephen Pulman
Proceedings of the International Conference RANLP-2009

2008

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The Good, the Bad, and the Unknown: Morphosyllabic Sentiment Tagging of Unseen Words
Karo Moilanen | Stephen Pulman
Proceedings of ACL-08: HLT, Short Papers

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Automatic Fine-Grained Semantic Classification for Domain Adaptation
Maria Liakata | Stephen Pulman
Semantics in Text Processing. STEP 2008 Conference Proceedings

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A Classifier-Based Approach to Preposition and Determiner Error Correction in L2 English
Rachele De Felice | Stephen G. Pulman
Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Coling 2008)

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ILP-based Conceptual Analysis for Chinese NPs
Paul D. Ji | Stephen G. Pulman
Coling 2008: Companion volume: Posters

2007

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Automatically Acquiring Models of Preposition Use
Rachele De Felice | Stephen Pulman
Proceedings of the Fourth ACL-SIGSEM Workshop on Prepositions

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Book Reviews: Flexible Semantics for Reinterpretation Phenomena, by Markus Egg
Stephen Pulman
Computational Linguistics, Volume 33, Number 1, March 2007

2006

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Sentence ordering with manifold-based classification in multi-document summarization
Paul D Ji | Stephen Pulman
Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

2005

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Automatic Short Answer Marking
Stephen G. Pulman | Jana Z. Sukkarieh
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Building Educational Applications Using NLP

2004

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Learning theories from text
Maria Liakata | Stephen Pulman
COLING 2004: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

2002

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From Trees to Predicate-argument Structures
Maria Liakata | Stephen Pulman
COLING 2002: The 19th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

2000

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Bidirectional Contextual Resolution
Stephen G. Pulman
Computational Linguistics, Volume 26, Number 4, December 2000

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Incorporating Linguistics Constraints into Inductive Logic Programming
James Cussens | Stephen Pulman
Fourth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning and the Second Learning Language in Logic Workshop

1999

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Book Reviews: Type-Logical Semantics
Stephen Pulman
Computational Linguistics, Volume 25, Number 3, September 1999

1996

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Unification Encodings of Grammatical Notations
Stephen G. Pulman
Computational Linguistics, Volume 22, Number 3, September 1996

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Compiling a Partition-Based Two-Level Formalism
Edmund Grimley-Evans | George Anton Kiraz | Stephen G. Pulman
COLING 1996 Volume 1: The 16th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

1995

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Book Reviews: Reversible Grammar in Natural Language Processing
S. G. Pulman
Computational Linguistics, Volume 21, Number 2, June 1995

1991

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Comparatives and Ellipsis
S. G. Pulman
Fifth Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

1987

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A Computational Framework for Lexical Description
Graeme D. Ritchie | Stephen G. Pulman | Alan W. Black | Graham J. Russell
Computational Linguistics, Formerly the American Journal of Computational Linguistics, Volume 13, Numbers 3-4, July-December 1987

1986

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A Dictionary and Morphological Analyser for English
G.J. Russell | S.G. Pulman | G.D. Ritchie | A.W. Black
Coling 1986 Volume 1: The 11th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

1985

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A Parser That Doesn’t
S. G. Pulman
Second Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

1984

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Limited Domain Systems for Language Teaching
S. G. Pulman
10th International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 22nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

1980

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Parsing and Syntactic Theory
S.G. Pulman
COLING 1980 Volume 1: The 8th International Conference on Computational Linguistics